To become an elite throwing athlete, you need to throw … a lot.
Quick, off the top of your head, name me one skill in life where becoming elite at that skill involves …
NOT DOING THAT SKILL.
You want to be a great guitar player?
Here’s what you do …
Don’t play guitar too much.
Save your bullets.
Take three months off every year to give your body time to recover.
You want to be a great chemist?
Ok, listen up.
Whatever you do …
Don’t do too much chemistry
When you want to do something well, doing that thing a lot seems ridiculously self-evident.
Yet if you ask medical experts and baseball traditionalists about the key to preventing throwing injuries, that’s exactly what we hear.
It stems from what I believe to be a fundamentally flawed assumption — that all throwing injuries are due to OVERUSE.
When the assumption is that OVERUSE is the cause of injury, the natural course of treatment is UNDERUSE.
Limit pitch counts.
Control innings pitched.
Take 3 months off every year.
Those were the recommendations, and most of the baseball world fell in lockstep without question.
Programs around the country implemented the restrictions, but to the experts’ surprise, injury rates continued to rise.
When the data showed no impact on injury rates with rest and “overuse” avoidance, the experts doubled down.
“They’re not being obedient … not doing what we said they should do.”
Soon it became political.
Any coach at any level who allowed a pitcher to go beyond these arbitrary limits was labeled ignorant, irresponsible, reckless, and even abusive. Governing boards legislated limits that would lead to disciplinary action if breached.
Coaches and organizations complied. Yet injury rates kept climbing.
Let’s face it. We’ve been chasing pitch counts and innings limits for nearly two decades, and it doesn’t seem to have had any influence on slowing the injury rate. Yet, we continue to mandate draconian restrictions.
It’s mind-boggling, really.
It defies logic, and the laws of physiology.
Davis’s law in physiology states that all human tissue remodels and aligns itself to resist the stress under which it is place. Any tissue with a blood supply is capable of making itself more robust and resistant to injury. However, it must be is exposed to the right stress. The body will always adapt. For positive adaptations, we must add stress to vulnerable tissue. If we withhold stress, we’re sure to get unwanted negative adaptations.
Send an astronaut into space for 30 days. In the absence of gravity, his body adapts negatively. When he comes down to earth, his bones are brittle, and his muscles are weak because he hasn’t been exposed to stress.
The irony is apparent.
In our noble effort to prevent injury by reducing exposure to stress, we may be making our athletes more vulnerable.
We must add stress.
But, we must control that stress, adding it slowly, incrementally, over time.
If we add it too quickly, the tissue will fail. If we add it at high intensity for too long, the body will respond by laying down the most hardened tissue it can muster — bone. The result will be calcifications and/or arthritic spurs.
Please understand, I’m not saying workload doesn’t matter.
There is a reasonable limit to how much an athlete should throw. However, that limit should be determined on a case-by-case basis.
You see, managing arm health is far deeper and more complex than merely counting pitches. Arm health and performance involves optimizing what my friend Ron Wolforth calls The Six Types of Contributors To Sub-Par Performance and/Or Pain.
Here they are shown in their order of importance.
If types 1 thru 5 are right, the pitcher could (and should) throw a lot.
If types 1 thru 5 are wrong, 10 pitches may be too much.
At least 2-3 times per week, we get calls and visits from players whose loving parents are beside themselves.
“I don’t know how he got hurt. He never went over the pitch count.”
Most parents don’t let their son throw too much. However, in many cases, their sons simply aren’t ready to handle even the smallest amount of workload. They haven’t stabilized the first five types of contributors.
At the Ranch consortium, we want our students to throw a lot, but we also understand that workload mustbe individualized. Not everyone is ready to throw a lot. A couple of years ago, we realized we needed to create a process for objectively measuring and calculating an athlete’s readiness to tolerate high volume throwing.
At the Florida Baseball Ranch, we measure EVERYTHING. We enter all of that information into a database we keep on an app in our iPads on the training floor. Our analytics department has formulaically quantified and weighted each possible contributing variable.
We combine that information with ramp-up data, pain and recovery audits, and performance-related factors like velocity changes, strike percentages, and ball flight metrics. Then we run that data through an algorithm we developed that produces an on-going Arm Readiness Measurement (A.R.M.). This score ranges from 0 to 100 and allows us to individually predict the amount of work each player can tolerate.
Last fall, the father of one of our 17-year-old students approached me before a training session and said, “Hey, my son threw 90 pitches in a game with his travel team this weekend. Does that seem excessive to you?”
“Hold on a minute,” I replied. I typed the player’s name into our Ipad App and called up his A.R.M. “No.” I said. His readiness score is 88 out of 100, so he should be able to tolerate 90 pitches just fine.”
If the player had scored a 20 on the A.R.M. we would have had a reason for concern. More importantly, we would have needed to dig deeper into his assessment to determine why he had scored so low. Then we would have gotten to work on correcting his deficits so he could score higher on the A.R.M.
Imagine you’re a college pitching coach, or you run a travel ball organization. You enter a weekend series or a tournament with 10 pitchers. Three have A.R.M. scores of 80 or above. Four are sitting between 50 and 75, and three are below 35. You’ll need to lean on the 80+ guys to handle most of the innings. The four in the middle can eat up a fair portion, but the 35 and below group will probably be limited to only a few innings each. After the series, you can address the discrepancies that led to the lower scores so they can handle more innings in the future.
If you want to improve your velocity, your command, or your secondary stuff, you have to throw a lot. But, before you do, you’d better be sure you’re ready to throw a lot.
Before you make another throw, or pitch in another game, call us at 866-787-4533.
We’ll develop a customized training plan that links your hardware to your software, and optimizes your warmup and ramp-up. We’ll write a strength and conditioning program that will aid in your readiness and turbo-boost your development. When you execute your plan, you’ll be able to throw safely and with enough volume to accelerate your progress at warp speed.
You’ll throw harder.
You’ll throw more strikes.
You’ll have nasty secondary stuff.
And, you’ll do it all without pain!
We’ll be with you every step of the way to guide you through your process.
One night last winter my friend, Alan Jaeger called me with a major concern about the current state of UCL reconstruction post-operative rehabilitation and throwing protocols. We talked for about an hour, and the discussion ignited a thought eruption that had been smoldering in my head for over 10 years.
At the Florida Baseball Ranch® we train and develop high-caliber throwing athletes, improving velocity, command, secondary stuff, and arm health. This past summer, 161 high school and college baseball players made the trek to Lakeland, FL to begin their own relentless pursuit of excellence in our Complete Game Summer Training Program, They trained up to five hours per day, five days per week and they stayed anywhere from 2-10 weeks. The energy, intensity, and focus was palpable and he the results were incredible.
It has been our honor to assist players in achieving performance levels they have heretofore only dreamed of. However, we also serve as the rehab wing of the Baseball Ranch consortium. Like our sister company, the Texas Baseball Ranch®, hyper-individualization of multifaceted training is the keystone of our process. At the Ranch, we frequently advise our students, “If you find yourself involved in a training experience where everyone in the program does the same thing all the time, RUN!!! If you “google return to throwing programs” the first 10 pages (notice I said “pages”, not “articles).”
I believe it’s time for UCL rehabilitation to undergo a radical change.
At the core of any rehabilitation process are 2 fundamental laws of physiology:
1) Wolff’s Law states that bone grows and remodels in response to the forces that are placed upon it in a healthy person.
2) Davis’s Law is a physiological principle (the corollary to Wolff’s Law) stating that soft tissue continually remodels and heals according to how they are mechanically stressed.
Rehab Protocols Must Adhere To Known Principles of Tissue Organization
Many esteemed members of the medical profession appear to ascribe to the idea that nearly all throwing injuries are due to “overuse” and that “you only have so many bullets in the gun, so you have to save them.” Those who do so are either denying or ignoring Davis’s law which applies to all human connective tissue that has a blood supply. While the UCL, Labrum, and rotator cuff aren’t the most highly vascularized tissues, they do receive some blood flow, and therefore under the right conditions, they are capable of remodeling themselves to resist the stresses under which they are placed.
I’ve had the privilege of scrubbing in for surgery with Dr. Koko Eaton, the Tampa Bay Rays team physician, who during a few different UCL reconstructions lifted the fragment of a torn UCL and said, “look at how thick this ligament has gotten. This injury has been coming on for a long time.” My thoughts immediately turned to Davis’s law. “That confirms it,” I thought. “A thickened ligament indicates that it was attempting to remodel itself to resist the stress.” Unfortunately for this guy, it wasn’t able to remodel fast enough to keep up with the pace of the stress.
During one particular surgery, Dr. Eaton had harvested an exceptionally long portion of the patient’s palmaris longus tendon (to be used as the replacement UCL). He drilled four holes in the in the bone and wrapped the tendon through in 3 full figure 8’s. Next, Dr. Eaton tested the stability of the graft with an aggressive valgus stress maneuver. I mean, he really popped it hard. I almost fell over from the startle reflex. I was shocked. In physical therapy, we had always treated our post-UCLR patients with kid gloves, gingerly handling the elbow and avoiding all valgus stress. After I had regained my senses, I said, “Wow. That looks like a pretty stable repair (I know. Brilliant, right?).” Dr. Eaton nodded and stated, “You know, Randy. This new ligament isn’t really the main stabilizer of the elbow. It’s just the lattice for the scar tissue. As it forms around the ligament, the scar will become the primary stabilizer.” He added, “Whenever we have to go back in for a second repair, “It looks like a grenade went off in the guy’s elbow. There is just this massive blowout of scar tissue.”
Well, that really got me thinking.
In physical therapy, we’ve used the same universal UCL rehab program for as long as I can remember. A surgeon might add a few nuances, or choose a preferred brace, but early physical therapy is pretty much a one-size-fits-all approach that involves minimal motion – even bracing – for the first several days/weeks. We progress through isolated, guarded ranges of motion in unidirectional planes (flexion and extension, supination/pronation), avoiding any valgus stress for at least eight weeks. We don’t begin any movement that simulates the kinematics of throwing until at least 16 weeks post-op. During that time, the stabilizing scar is forming without any guidance. If you’re not interested in the biological processes in the body, skip the next section. If this kind of stuff interests you, here’s how the scar is formed:
The Physiology of Tissue Healing
Immediately (within seconds or minutes) after the surgery there is a brief constriction of blood vessels followed by rapid vasodilation. Vessels that were shut down are re-opened and widened as the tissue is infused with fresh blood – blood that contains many of the necessary healing agents for recovery and the ever-important undifferentiated mesenchymal cells (UMCs) that begin forming the scar. UMCs are like over-the-counter stem cells that run in the platelets of the blood. They have no real job until tissue is injured. When they receive what is assumed to be a chemical signal about tissue injury or death, they have the miraculous ability to morph themselves into whatever kind of cells they need to become to replace the injured or dead cells. UMCs are the same cells involved in the PRP (platelet-rich plasma) injection procedure that has become popular in the last 8-10 years.
After this period of vasodilation and infusion, the rate of blood flow diminishes. This increases the hydrostatic pressure which causes fluid to leak out of the blood vessels and into the surrounding tissue. The fluid that leaks out is called transudate, and it consists of fluid, scant amounts of protein, but it no intact cells. The migration of this watery fluid out of the vessels increases the viscosity of the blood. This condition is known as haemoconcentration (thickening of the blood).
If the flow slows to a crawl or even stops, endothelial cells that make up the inner lining of the blood vessels begin to die for two reasons: 1) the roughness of the blood due to increased viscosity which scrapes the cells off the inner wall, and 2) hypoxia (lack of oxygen) as they are physically separated from blood cells carrying much-needed oxygen.
When endothelial cells die or become dysfunctional, a critical process for evacuating cellular debris is disrupted, and constipation or backflow occurs. This is a primary reason we believe ice to be contraindicated immediately postoperatively. Ice causes vasoconstriction and impedes blood flow. Continued or enhanced blood flow will avoid the traffic jam that could result in permanent damage to endothelial cells and could cascade into more widespread necrosis (or cell death). For more problem with icing as a therapeutic modality, see the works of Gary Reinl, the author of Iced: The Illusionary Treatment Option.
When epithelial cells are preserved, the clean-up can begin. White blood cells (also called leukocytes) roll along the inside of the epithelial cell wall adhering transiently to form what looks like white brick pavement along the edge of the vessel wall. The white blood cells that manage to stick to the inner wall then shoot out little “pseudopods” that become what are known as polymorphs. These polymorphs lift up the endothelial barrier and squeeze through to produce holes in the membrane. At this point, white blood cells migrate through the holes and secrete a protein that locks on to a corresponding protein on the pseudopod on the outside of the endothelial wall. The process of passing through the vessel wall is called emigration. When the protein bond is complete, emigrated white blood cells/pseudopods begin to move toward the injury site for cleanup. Remarkably, they travel against the concentration gradient, like a salmon swimming upstream, in a process known as chemotaxis. When healthy cells are injured, they release 3 chemotactic agents (C5a, C3a, and C567). These agents send a powerful signal to the white blood cells that attract them to the site of the injury. This reaction is facilitated by magnesium and calcium ions.
When the white blood cells (also known as phagocytes) arrive on the scene, they don’t strike right away. They gather in a process called aggregation, then they recognize and engulf any unwanted debris, wrapping the garbage in a well-contained cellular trash bag before being passively transported into the lymphatic system for evacuation.
The lymphatic system can be thought of like the waste management service of the body. It’s like the trash man, hauling off and disposing of unwanted garbage. But, the lymphatic system is passive. It doesn’t send trash men out to pick up the trash; it waits for the phagocytes full of dead debris to wander near the lymph nodes. As they diffuse into the lymph system, they are evacuated through the kidneys. The passive nature of the lymphatic system is why early movement and muscle pumping such as that produced by Marc Pro® electrical stimulation and the pressure gradient created by Rocket Wrap® a both valuable parts of our rehabilitation and recovery programs.
Once the clean-up is complete, the road is clear for the UMCs to do their thing. They morph into the appropriate replacement cells and, like fresh recruits on the battlefield, assume their new position.
However, there is one more step they need to achieve an optimal outcome – a mechanical signal to direct their alignment. Following Davis’s Law, if we don’t provide a mechanical signal, by adding controlled stress to the new tissue, it forms in a disorganized fashion, like a plate spaghetti noodles left out in the sink all night. Disorganized tissue is unstable. Disorganized tissue is vulnerable. Disorganized tissue adheres to anything it can cling to, including, in the case of UCL reconstruction, the tendon graft that serves as the lattice for the newly forming scar.
In the current universal UCL rehabilitation protocol, we wait at least 16 weeks before we expose the elbow to any stresses that even remotely resemble the demands of actual throwing. During the entire process, in nearly every case, we fight a common enemy – scar tissue. Fearful of imparting any level of valgus load, we attempt to eliminate functional stress and try in vain to manage the scar from the outside with modalities like cross friction massage, instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM), and a collection of vaguely defined manual therapy techniques commonly known as “soft tissue work.” Please don’t get me wrong here, I’m not averse to these modalities, I’m certified in IASTM and use it sparingly as a pain management intervention and in cases where we might a have a gnarly, adherent scar. Nonetheless, in my opinion, those who believe we can impart order on tissue from outside of the body are sorely mistaken. That’s not the way Davis’s Law works. We might be able to break some of the superficial fibers loose, but even then, without internally activated stress created by movement, we can never achieve optimal scar tissue organization.
When I teach physical therapy continuing education classes on UCL rehabilitation, one of the slides I post is the image of a guy looking like he’s stressed and about to vomit. I call it “the moment.” The message is that as therapists and coaches we should prepare our players for an inevitable moment that nearly every recovering UCLR experiences. It usually happens at about 7-9 months post-operation. As the player begins to ramp up his throwing program toward more game-like intensity, he/she feels that dreaded and infernal “pop”! The immediate and terrifying thought is that they’ve re-injured the elbow, but more times than not, it’s just scar tissue breaking free. After about 7-10 days, the elbow starts feeling better, and the throwing program may be resumed. Why does this occur? I would suggest that the reason we fight scar tissue like this is that we allow it to become severely disorganized during our first 16 weeks of rehab.
Could it be that the for the lucky athletes, the frightening “pop” represents the tearing of tissue that is not directly attached to the graft? But, for the unlucky ones, the story is different. When a scar is allowed to heal unchecked and unguided, it adheres to anything upon which it can find a foothold — including, in many cases, the tender new tendon graft. If the scar happens to anchor tightly to the graft site, when the athlete begins adding the stress of throwing, it could cause the disorganized, randomly-oriented repair to explode into the “grenade” scene described by Dr. Eaton.
I believe we could be making a colossal mistake by eliminating all valgus stress and by avoiding any movements that mimic throwing in the early stages of rehab. Our efforts to protect the surgical repair by practically immobilizing the arm could be setting the stage for tissue failure. Within the limits of repair site integrity, establishing and maintaining scar tissue order should be the first order of business in any legitimate UCLR or Labrum repair rehabilitation. This can only be accomplished through controlled variable movement that adds the low-grade stress necessary to align the newly forming tissue effectively.
Rehab Programs Must Address Tissue Physiology AND Motor Control Simultaneously
What we’ve talked about so far is the physiology of the process. But, we haven’t yet discussed the impact of the extended rest and protection on motor control and coordination. As Dr. Eaton explained, the scar is an important stabilizer of the post-UCLR elbow. But, the number one stabilizing component of the system is dynamic motor control. The passive restraints provided by to the labrum and the UCL are the last line of defense. If your labrum and UCL are the points of primary stability, you’re probably already in trouble. The timing, sequencing, and synergy of surrounding musculature must be optimized to attenuate the stress on the UCL and labrum. Just like any other physiological system, the motor control system adapts precisely to the neuromuscular coordination demands it experiences. Lack of demand equals no adaptation. No coordinative demand equals no motor control. And, according to the SAID principle of rehab and training (Specific Adaptation to an Imposed Demand), the system will adapt directly in accordance with the stresses under which it is placed. When rehabilitating our players, the training experience we choose in every phase of recovery must keep tissue integrity paramount, but that experience must also be specific to the adaptation we are trying to elicit. It must mimic, as closely as possible, the parameters of the conditions our players will face in life and when they return to games.
And, one thing we know for sure is that the stress our players must handle in life and in games will be largely unpredictable. To bulletproof our players against the variability and unpredictability they will eventually face, we must introduce incrementally increasing variability, or unpredictability as early and as safely as possible. When introduced slowly and within the limits of tissue integrity, variability will allow physiological and neurological self-organization of coordinated movement to progress simultaneously.
As healing tissue organizes to withstand stress, it presents new coordinative demands. If we help an athlete develop the capacity to handle a given level of physiological stress, but we don’t also incorporate a motor control plan to keep the movement within the boundaries of safety, yet highly resistant to perturbation, we may be dooming them to failure. Connective tissue, whether healthy or healing, must remain physiologically and neurologically organized at all times.
Return-to-throwing protocols that feature mindless adherence to a pre-scripted regimen of throws ignore many of the factors that contributed to the injury in the first place. It’s vital that we employ a thorough multi-faceted assessment process to identify possible contributors. When deficits are noted, we must incorporate training strategies that influence the athlete to achieve efficiency in all 6 types of contributors to sub-par performance and/or pain.
Rehab Programs Must Be Individualized
As stated frequently by Coach Ron Wolforth, our mantra at the Florida and Texas Baseball Ranches® has long been, “One-size-fits-all fits none.” Training plans must be customized to meet the individual needs of every player, and they must be changed as the condition of the athlete changes. Cookie-cutter recipes for rehab will never be adequate for optimizing outcomes. Rehabilitation protocols should should illuminate overall principles and goals, and they should serve as general guides and . But, they should never be viewed as a governor, and they should never replace or limit the sound professional judgment of an experienced and qualified rehabilitation professional or coach.
Additionally, rehab protocols must be remain contemporary and should be changed and updated with the times.
As new information emerges, our approach to rehabilitation should be modified to reflect the most current training concepts. The current approach to rehabilitating injured throwing athletes is based on a program first introduced in the late 1970s. It is antiquated, ineffective and it stifles the creativity and adjustability necessary to achieve consistently positive outcomes.
We believe it is time for a change.
As soon as intra-operative bleeding is curtailed, remove the bulky dressing and eliminate all post-operative icing.
Start Marc Pro for at least 16 hours per day to assist with exudate evacuation, thereby creating a more optimal healing environment.
Add multidimensional low amplitude oscillations and gradually increase intensity as early as tissue integrity will allow.
Begin early progressions of functional range of motion including active movements in multiple planes and in “throwing-like” exercises performed within pain limits. High-frequency, low-intensity motion should begin the day after surgery.
Challenge all non-throwing arm attractors with light perturbations, variability and unpredictable loads ASAP after surgery.
Incrementally challenge the Throwing Arm Attractor as soon as tissue integrity allows. use low grade
Integrate variability/unpredictability early in the rehab process and influence more efficient movement patterns using self-organization techniques.
Utilize technology such as MOTUS® and MuscleSound® to measure stress and fatigue objectively, but teach our patients/players to become intimately familiar with how their arms feel. Let that be the ultimate guide for the process.
Design return to throwing and rehabilitative processes that allow each player to modulate his training experience based on how his arm and body feel on any given day, at any given moment.
Use pain as the boundary marker, but allow each athlete progress as quickly, or as slowly as his body prefers. Be prepared to adjust the plan daily based on each athlete’s subjective report on the status of pain, weakness, tightness, fatigue, etc.
Before publishing this article, I shared it with three trusted friends and colleagues, FBR Director of Player Development, Wes McGuire , Dr. Stephen Osterer, and Alan Jaeger. They added some important thoughts.
Wes McGuire: “We need to reconsider the value and potential corruptive nature of the initial throws in the traditional return to throwing protocol. Having experienced my own UCL recovery in high school, I am certain that the mechanics of a 50% effort throw are completely alien and might contribute to disconnections later in the rehab process. So many people (me included when I was recovering from a UCLR) develop some degree of ‘The Yips’ during UCL recovery. Could it be that these super-low intensity post surgical throws are offering disrupted sensory information that result in bad movement patterns?”
Dr. Stephen Osterer: “Something that would interest me in writing would be going into a bit more depth on how tissue loading directs directionality and composition of tissue, how all connective tissue is interconnected (van der Waals continuum), collagen deposition & type, and provide just a bit more insight into the importance of loading in general.
I’d love to explore the concept of how variability in stress can lead to robustness, and that robustness is critical to resiliency – all from a rehabilitation standpoint. Consider how the majority of ‘return to throw’ is repetitive drill work, repetitive exercises, etc. Narrow bandwidth of solutions = narrow bandwidth of tissue resiliency. This includes restoring joint range of motion (and proprioception) to increase the space of the elemental variables (a la UCM hypothesis) & that variability of load within that space may enhance the size of that space.
Another interesting topic would be inducing fatigue on purpose to drive physiological adaptation, but in controlled frequency and duration.
Interested in the pain science component?
The effect of fear and tight coupling / freezing of degrees of freedom and how variability and novelty in task ‘free’ that?
Kinesiophobia would be an interesting avenue to walk down – not sure that I’ve found or read much about it elsewhere in baseball.”
I’d like to invite and welcome Ron Wolforth, Stephen Osterer, Wes McGuire, Alan Jaeger, Dr. Ed Fehringer, and anyone else who wants to join us, as we investigate the current state of injury risk management, post-surgical rehab, and return to throwing programs in baseball.
When the current universal UCLR protocol was written, it was still ok for guys to smoke cigarettes in the dugout. I think it’s time to take another look. I think it’s time for a change.
Until I met Frans Bosch at the 2014 Texas Baseball Ranch Ultimate Pitching Coaches Boot Camp, my coaching style was unremarkable and, in retrospect … suboptimal. It was what I call TWT coaching.
Tellthe player how to do something. Watch them do it.
Then, tellthem how to do it better.
And, when they don’t get it right, label them “uncoachable” and move on.
It’s typical …
and it’s highly ineffective.
According to Bosch, one of the world’s most preeminent experts in skill acquisition and motor learning science, “The body shows remarkably little interest in what the coach has to say.”
That’s because when learning and refining movement skills, a couple of truths exist.
First, you cannot repeat a movement. Every repetition will result in a subtle deviation from the previous trial. “Repeatable mechanics” are a unicorn! Instead of being a guy who “repeats” his mechanics, you should strive to be a world class, in-flight adjuster to the deviations you make. And those adjustments have to occur subconsciously — without thought. You see, when we measure the amount of time it takes for a neurologic impulse to travel from the brain to the muscles and back up to the brain again, it becomes clear that there isn’t enough time for any adjustment in the pattern to occur by way of conscious thought.
Our players are required to perform skills that don’t allow time for thinking. Therefore, we can no longer continue to coach them with methods that demand conscious thought all the time.
“On your next pitch, I want you to focus on …”
“Ok, on this one, you need to think about …”
“When you get right here in the motion, you need to concentrate on …”
Listen to us!! Can we please stop? There’s no time for thinking, or focusing, or concentrating!!
Trying to enter a motor learning domain via a cognitive input is a futile endeavor. If words, verbal cues, and cognitive thoughts are the primary means of coaching, they can interfere with learning and erode performance.
When you were a baby, and you learned to walk, we couldn’t use verbal cues to teach (thank goodness). Instead, we used one of the six different motor learning techniques we use at The Florida Baseball Ranch® to elicit the necessary movement pattern. we created a safe environment and gave you a goal — “Come to mommy (or daddy)”. Then we let your infinitely intelligent body self-organize until you accomplished that goal.
Makes you wonder, doesn’t it?
If babies could talk before they could walk, they might not ever learn to walk! As parents and coaches, we’d probably screw them up with verbal cues.
We get banged on a lot about self-organization. Critics call it “FIO (figure-it-out) coaching” and when they do, it shows a gross misunderstanding of skill acquisition and motor learning science. Self-organization is far more complex than traditional explicit, verbal cue-laden coaching. It requires a lot more creativity and thought than “TWT coaching.”
Here’s an infographic showing some the various ways we can influence a movement pattern without using verbal cues.
Choosing and executing the right technique, on the right athlete, at the just the right time, and under just the right conditions — that is the art of master teaching.
This is what I’ll be speaking on at The Florida Baseball Ranch®/Dutch Baseball Skill Acquisition Summit on Sep 8-9. I’ll be joined by several of the leading skill acquisition scientists and the most progressive thinking coaches, physical therapists and athletic trainers in the business. The scientists will lay out the theory and the coaches will show you exactly how you can implement it into your practices.
It will be the first time ever that skill acquisition science will be applied specifically to baseball on such a grand scale.
At our baseball training programs camps, we work with players of every age and experience level. It’s not uncommon to have a major league client on site, but it’s also not unusual to see a cool 9 year-old running around .
Spring Training is beginning soon for major and minor league professionals, college and high school seasons are rolling and the young guys — middle schoolers and below — are launching into their rec and travel ball campaigns.
About this time of year, as the arm pain management division of the Baseball Ranch® consortium, I field a lot of questions about growth plate injuries.
So what are growth plate injuries, and how do they occur?
First let me tell you what they are not… usually they are not catastrophic. So when you find that your son or daughter, or one of your players has suffered a growth plate injury there is no need to panic. Most of the time, a simple period of rest is all they need to get back on track.
Think of growth plates as little factories, manufacturing bone cells and depositing them on the bone to make it longer. There are several growth plates in the shoulder and the elbow. When an athlete is fully grown, these growth plates fuse and the factory shuts down. At younger ages, growth plates are highly active and vulnerable to stress.
When exposed to abnormal stress, the body will usually break at its weakest link. In older athletes, the weak link is the connective tissue (rotator cuff, labrum, UCL). In the younger population the weak link is the growth plate.
Not all growth plate injuries are the same. In our baseball training camps and programs, we treat growth plate injuries very differently depending on the type of injury. If you’re dealing with a growth plate injury, it’s good to understand the classifications.
The Nature Of Different Growth Plate Injuries
The Salter-Harris classification is a simple and easy to remember system to identify the nature and severity of a growth plate injury. It uses the name “Salter” as a pneumonic memory jogger. According to sketchymedicine.com, it goes like this:
SEPARATED (the bone and the growth plate have come apart) – but it actually looks normal on x-ray (you can only tell on physical exam)
Fracture ABOVE the growth plate
Fracture LOWER than (below) the growth plate – fracture extends to the articular surface
Fracture THROUGH the growth plate
Fracture ERASING/compressing/squashing the growth plate – this is the worst kind because with disruption of the growth plate comes disruption of growth. Type “ER” injuries are usually caused by rare occurrences such as frostbite, electric shock and irradiation. They’re hard to see on x-rays but show up on MRIs.
Depending on the classification of the injury, treatment could range from simple rest, to casting, to surgery.
Most of the growth plate injuries we see are of the “S” variety — the growth plate becomes separated, and manifests itself in the form of pain. This type of injury may or may not be seen on x-ray. But, if a young athlete experiences persistent pain in the shoulder or the elbow, you should be suspicious of a growth plate injury.
Type 1 contributors: structural/physical related (tightness, weakness, asymmetries, imbalances, etc…) Type 2 contributors: movement pattern related. Type 3 contributors: tissue preparation and recovery. Type 4 contributors: training related factors. Type 5 contributors: workload (pitch counts, innings limits). Type 6 contributors: nutrition, hydration, sleep, and psychological stress.
What We Do For Growth Plate Injuries
Coaches at our baseball training camps know that, when you have a soft tissue injury (UCL, labrum, rotor cuff) that doesn’t result in catastrophic failure, it’s very important during the rehab process that you provide controlled stress to organize the healing tissue along the line of resistance. It’s a concept known as Davis’s Law – a physiologic precept stating that all connective tissue in the human body organizes itself to resist the stresses under which it is placed. For this reason, in the case of soft tissue injuries to the throwing athlete, rest may be the worst thing you can do. If the tissue is not completely disrupted, it needs a mechanical signal to guide reorganization as it heals. This is when we recommend light throwing or throwing in the Durathro® Training Sock for players in our baseball training programs.
What To Do While Healing
But when it comes to growth plate injuries, tissue reorganization is not the primary goal. Protecting the growth plate and preventing the injury from progressing to a more serious situation is the order at hand. In that regard, the growth plate injury is one of the few throwing disorders for which I would indeed prescribe total rest. An acceptable amount of rest could range from 2-8 weeks depending on the nature and severity of the injury. By “rest”, we mean avoidance of throwing, not complete cessation of all training activities.
When working with injured players in our baseball training camps, one of our mantras is, “Never let what you can’t do keep you from doing what you can.” While the athlete is waiting for his growth plate aggravation to subside, he should work to eliminate any possible constraints in stability and/or mobility that might be contributing to the problem. He may also be able to work on improving lower half power and efficiency – traits that will help him attenuate stress on the arm once he’s read to resume throwing. During this time, the young athlete can also learn a quality warm-up and recovery process that will serve him well when he eventually resumes throwing activities.
After Rest Period
After the appropriate rest period has elapsed, it is extremely important to address all the movement pattern related variables that might have contributed to the injury. A video analysis of the throwing pattern should reveal any arm action of lower half inefficiencies that might have combined with structural, preparation, recovery, or training related factors that could have created an environment for his injury to occur. From this analysis, an individualized corrective throwing plan can be designed and executed.
Frequency, intensity and volume of throwing should always be ramped up gradually, monitoring the athlete for any report of pain.
If you are the parent or coach of a young thrower, awareness of the possibility of a growth plate injury could lead to early detection, intervention and avoidance of a more severe injury.
Do you need to get an x-ray or a MRI immediately if your adolescent thrower reports pain? Probably not.
Most growth plate injuries are relatively benign and respond well to brief rest. However, in the case of intense, intolerable pain, or if the pain persists even after a couple of weeks of rest, it may be helpful to seek out imaging to get a more clear picture of the situation and possible treatment options.
Are you having arm pain? If you are, I’m sure you’d like to get it settled. If you don’t take care of it now, at best it could nag you throughout the rest of the year and at worst it could evolve into something more serious.
We’ll do a total body physical exam and a video analysis to identify any variable that might be contributing to your pain. We’ll work with you to develop a training plan tailored to your specific need and we’ll help you return to pain free throwing quickly and safely.
We can’t wait to see you at The Ranch.
Randy Sullivan, MPT, CSCS
CEO, Florida Baseball Ranch
That’s what “they” say.
Who says that?
You know, the ubiquitous yet ever-elusive “they” who reign supreme as the self-appointed authority on just about everything.
Well… not surprisingly, “they” are wrong again.
According to a June 2013 report published in the journal Nature, throwing has been “natural” since our Homo Erectus ancestors began chucking rocks and sticks at large prey about 1.9 million years ago.
Humans are born to throw.It’s in our DNA. And when left to our own devices, most throwers learn to do so without the need for any coaching or guidance. Yet, despite the natural nature (that’s redundant and repetitive) of throwing, injury rates continue to climb and although most players desire to throw at a high level, many never achieve it.
How can this be?
As I reflect on this question, I am guided toward yet another stroke of brilliance from Coach Ron Wolforth of The Texas Baseball Ranch. Sometime around 2015, Coach Wolforth presented a list of 11 of the most common “disconnections” that limit a player’s ability to throw hard, demonstrate elite level command, developed high caliber secondary stuff and/or recover on schedule. At the risk of sounding like a slobbering lap dog, I am frequently impressed by Ron’s ability to see through complex problems and pare them down to comprehensible, manageable categories. Hyper-individualization of training plans across multiple dimensions is the hallmark and the desired endpoint of the TBR/FBR consortium but without categorization there can be no systemized path to customization.
Categorize, then customize.
That’s the formula and in my opinion it’s brilliant.
Throwing at a superior level is about being “connected”. When a delivery is connected all the body parts are acting in timing and synergy with one another. Every part is playing its proper role and performing in concert with all the other body parts and those parts are operating around a stable spine.
Disconnections are defined as instances when a body part acts independently, away from the natural synergy of the rest of the body or apart from a stable spine. Disconnections add stress to connective tissue that can result in injury, premature fatigue and/or difficulty with recovery. Disconnections can also limit an athlete’s ability to summate the forces in the kinetic chain, thereby limiting the ability to achieve optimal velocity. And finally, disconnections can lead to early unraveling of the movement pattern, resulting in command issues and substandard secondary stuff
Being connected is natural. Disconnections are unnatural.
So, why do some throwing athletes become disconnected?
In my experience there are 4 reasons a throwing athlete develops disconnections (and these are listed in order from the most common to the least common).
Their disconnections are taught. Through the years, I’ve studied throwing more than most and I’ve screwed some things up along the way. Frankly, many of the concepts I espoused as a young coach probably did more harm than good. There are about 1000 kids I should find and offer my apologies. I taught what I knew… and I was wrong. Like me, there are many well-meaning coaches who unfortunately possess incomplete or in correct information. I’ve never met a coach who intentionally made a player worse, or chose to put him at risk for injury. Nonetheless, many of the standard teaching points in traditional pitching instruction are simply wrong and they encourage disconnections. “Get your elbow up”. “Point the ball to second base.” “Tall and fall.” “Push off the rubber.” All of these well intentioned commands can lead to disconnections that add stress to connective tissue, rob a pitcher of velocity and negatively impact command and secondary stuff. Yes, indeed… many times disconnections are taught.
They are desperately seeking energy in the wrong places. When inefficiencies present themselves, they tend to disrupt the kinetic chain such that a player attempting to maximize production subconsciously searches for motor patterns that might be counterproductive or might even put him at risk for injury. This is most commonly demonstrated in the disconnection that is the highly debated inverted W. Defined as any time the throwing athlete moves one or both elbows into extreme abduction with internal rotation of the shoulder. Typically, athletes who demonstrate this disconnection also exhibit poor lower half efficiency. Lacking support from the ground, they look to their upper bodies to produce the energy needed to approach elite level throwing. In my experience, many times if you can improve the lower half movement pattern, this upper half problem goes away.
They have mobility or stability constraints that force them to adopt a particular movement pattern. I say this quite often. Mobility and stability constraints are intimately interwoven. Often one will spawn the other. For example, if you have tight quads or you have poor ankle mobility, you’ll probably have a hard time getting into a glute load. Your mobility restrictions will force you to shift your weight toward the ball of your foot and you’ll become quad dominant. This will project the direction of your load toward the on deck circle on your arm side. From this point, unless you have crazy hip internal rotation mobility and motor control, you’ll either land across your body and throw hook shots toward home plate (significantly stressing your connective tissue in the process), or you’ll disconnect with a lead leg opening early, premature torso rotation, leaning hard to the glove side with your posture, you’ll push or leap with your back leg, instead of rotating, in a move that will cause you to release the ball with your back foot in the air – effectively eliminating any further contribution from your lower half. Mobility and/or stability constraint are often major contributors to disconnection and they’re frequently ignored. If you hope to change a pitchers biomechanical patter, you must assess for contributory physical constraints concurrently with a high-speed video analysis.
Their body randomly selects an inefficient pathway as they are learning their movement pattern. One of the fundamental principles in motor learning is known as Bernstein Principle #1 and it states, “The body will organize itself in accordance to the overall goal of the activity.” If given a clear goal, the body will find a way to accomplish the task. Note, however that we said the body will find “a way.” That doesn’t necessarily mean it will always choose the safest or the most efficient way. That’s where master teaching/coaching can play the most significant role in player development. As players begin to self-organize new movements we can use motor learning strategies to maximize efficiency and safety, increase the rate of learning for the student and improve transfer to game performance.
As a master teacher or coach, it is our responsibility to design and execute training protocols that take advantage of all the available motor learning science principle to suppress, improve or eliminate disconnections. And, it seems to me that it would be a whole lot easier to catch them before they became a problem. Get your athlete connected first. Then add energy. That is the Ranch formula and so far it’s going pretty well… and getting better all the time.
If you’re a throwing athlete who needs to get connected, here’s how you can connect with us, here are 3 links to get you there:
Come spend a week or two with us at our incredible Complete Game Winter Training Program. Stay anywhere from 1-6 weeks and train up to 5 hours per day, 5 days per week. Get connected and ramped up for the best season of your life. Click Here to learn more.
Schedule a Precision Strike, One-day, One-on-One evaluation and training session. We’ll spend up to 5 hours in a one-on-one experience assessing you for inefficiencies and physical constrain. Then we’ll take that information and design a custom-made training plan that will leave no stone unturned and you’ll leave not only with a world-class comprehensive training plan but you’ll also be offered a process to stay connected with us so we can help you continue your improvement. Click Here to learn more or call us a 866-787-4533 (866-STRIKE3) to schedule an appointment.
Come to a weekend Elite Performance Boot Camp. In what can only be considered 2 days of amazing, we’ll conduct a full court press assessment, teach you all the drills and exercises necessary to correct your inefficiencies. You’ll learn about our leading edge motor learning approach and we’ll teach you all you need to know about strength and conditioning, tissue preparation and recovery. You’ll leave with a plan that will make the complex subject of elite thrower training simple and easy to implement.
We can’t wait to see you at The Ranch®.
Randy Sullivan, MPT, CSCS
CEO, Florida Baseball Ranch
Based upon the works of Dr. Frans Bosch and Dr. K. Anders Ericsson, the Ranch training systems have signiﬁcantly shifted toward the awareness of how the brain is being inﬂuenced and shaped during each training session and how our practice sessions are either developing/ optimizing or inhibiting with/ interfering with our athlete’s ability to adjust and adapt during competition. It has become painfully obvious to us that the traditional standard practice fare almost always represents a real limitation to an athlete’s ability to adjust.
Therefore we utilize the concept of Differential Learning and Deliberate Practice in almost every single facet of our training. Our clients systematically enhance their ability to adjust, adapt and overcome…it’s baked into the training cake. It’s part of what they do every day…Practicing Adjustment.
1). The Multi-colored Pad and Khaos balls are our newest training tools for a process we refer to as Khaos Training. By constantly changing the target and the size, weight and texture of EVERY Ball on EVERY Throw, 1) the brain is actively engaged and 2) The body learns to organize itself quickly and effectively over time.
2). By staggering the distances of our Advanced Command Trainers and utilizing V Flex in our command series and charting our sessions, we have seen dramatic improvements in our athlete’s ability to adjust and engage the brain during otherwise mundane training sessions.
3). We utilize many of the concepts of Jozef Frucek, Martin Bosy and Fighting Monkey™ and their paradigm of Earthquake Architecture.
4) We have expanded and improved our utilization of such tools as the Bell Club, Wrist Weights, Shoulder Tube™, Mini Bands and the Durathro™ Baseball Training Sock, *Take special notice the video screen in front of the athletes (red circle) playing slow motion and regular speed segments of elite, world class throwing athletes, focusing in on the speciﬁc movement segment the athletes are trying to reproduce*.
5) We have modiﬁed our strength development and corrective exercises to focus on coordination, synergy, variability, malleability and strength speciﬁcally at end ranges of motion. Literally everything has at least a component of adaptability and adjustability to it.
Note from Robert Oates:
Would you like to learn more about how elite pitchers are developed and how Oates Specialties equipment is used to improve elite athletes? If yes, then I encourage you to attend the Texas Baseball Ranch Ultimate Pitching Coaches Boot Camp. For the past 13 years, this experience has been the annual highlight of my year.
The always remarkable content offered at the event is from world class presenters, and the networking opportunity with people who live and breathe pitching always proves to be invaluable. From the program shown below, it is evident this year’s event will also be extraordinary.
Coach Wolforth has given us the opportunity to offer you a $50.00 registration discount. Just enter the code OATES (be sure to use all capital letters) in the registration form found at www.CoachesBootCamp.com.
This year’s Ultimate Pitching Coaches Boot Camp is slated for December 7 -10 (Friday through Sunday, with a bonus day on Thursday). Gunnar, Drayton and I will be there and hope to see you there as well!
The 2017 Ultimate Pitching Coaches Boot Camp
For the first time ever the UPCBC will be held in the brand new 4700 square feet theatre and assessment center. (At the Ranch we refer to it as the BIG RED BARN). This allows us a temperature controlled theatre in an awesome facility for the lecture presentations AND immediate access to our two 3600 sq ft training barns for any break out and hands on sessions. In our opinion this property is the ultimate venue for an event of this nature.
The Ultimate Pitching Coaches Boot Camp Agenda:
Bonus Day: Thursday, December 7: You get insider access to all the latest methods we use with our MLB, college, and younger athletes at The Ranch. Boot Camp: Friday - Sunday, December 8-10: Three full days of expert sessions, Q&A, and camaraderie. Learn from your peers, make new friends, and form valuable new connections to further your career as a coach.
• Coach Wallace will talk about the efﬁcient utilization of the Lower Half- both the back hip and glute as well as lead leg disconnections…and The Ranch process of Deliberate Practice in creating systematic gains in Command.
• Coach Kaday will discuss the Power Core 360 and how we enhance torque as well as increasing an athlete’s awareness of synergy, coordination and the summation of force.
• Coach Massey will talk about Recovery and how to dramatically improve it in your pitching athletes with some very simple steps.
• Coach Wolforth will discuss a myriad of topics- from simple ways to better engage the brain at practice for almost immediately higher levels of performance at game time; to the developing real leaders that actually make a difference inside your ball club and organization.
And Our Guest Lecturers include:
• Jonathan Armold: Minor League Pitching Coach, Texas Rangers
• Brian Cain: World Renown Peak Performance Coach
• Jon Huizinga: Baseball Coach with a holistic training approach emphasizing fuel/nutrition.
• Jeff Krushell: Human Performance and Development Expert & Major League Baseball International Consultant
• Stephen Osterer: Doctor of Chiropractic at Totum Life Science
• Tim Nicely: President V-Flex Technology
• Martijn Nijhoff: Studied Under Frans Bosch; Talent Coach for Knbsb
• Gary Reinl: Author of "Iced - The Illusionary Treatment Option"
• Randy Sullivan: P.T and owner Florida Baseball Ranch®
The 2020 Vandy commit from Boca Raton, FL was a low to mid 80s lefty when I met him on September 23, 2016. He and his father made the 3-hour drive to the Florida Baseball Ranch® for a Precision Strike One Day One-On-One Evaluation and Training session. We conducted a full head-to-toe physical assessment and a video analysis of his movement pattern. We noted a few mobility issues and a slightly elevated distal humerus and crafted a customized multi-dimensional training plan. Nelson “bought in” to the process completely and diligently executed his program. After a few tweaks, a little work on his mobility, and some power building, it wasn’t long before he was touching 88 mph.
Nelson and his Dad returned to the Ranch for a pre-season check up in December of 2016, upon which I noted that his mobility had improved significantly. His dad Ross Berkwich, a lifetime Yoga instructor, had seen to that! His video analysis showed that he was much more biomechanically efficient and essentially free from gross constraints. More importantly, he was pain free and ready to have a great year.
He entered his high school season with high hopes and even higher expectations. Things seemed to be progressing well. Nelson was his usual dominant self on the mound. But then one cool night in April, during a routine district game a couple of weeks before the high school playoffs were to begin, Nelson’s elbow started to hurt. The next day it was worse, and even after several days of rest, he still couldn’t muster up a full effort throw without experiencing pain. The location of the pain was right over his UCL. Fearing the worst, local coaches and medical acquaintances advised him to seek a MRI.
Instead, Nelson’s father called the Florida Baseball Ranch®.
After discussing the young lefty’s playing and training activities over the last 4 months, his father sent me video of Nelson making a sub-maximal flat-ground throw in an unidentified hotel parking lot. It wasn’t optimal but it was the best we could do since we needed to act quickly. Nelson’s high school playoffs, summer season and a tryout with Team USA were approaching rapidly.
When I reviewed the video, I noticed that during the past 4 months, which had consisted primarily of pitching in games, resting, and throwing bullpens, his former arm action disconnection — the elevated distal humerus — had returned. But, more importantly, he had become quad dominant in his first move, projecting him toward the first base on-deck circle. In an attempt to compensate, he opened his lead leg early but still found himself landing across his body. This prevented him from adequately rotating around his front hip, causing his deceleration pattern to become linear, which resulted in a valgus stress on the medial elbow when he reached full extension. Click here to read more about the dangers of a linear deceleration pattern. In my view, it wasn’t one thing causing his pain… it was probably a little of all of the above.
I felt certain we could help him if we could improve his arm action and his lower half efficiency. But, how were we going to change his movement pattern during the season, especially if he couldn’t throw a baseball without pain?
I texted Nelson and asked him if he had his sock with him. He said he did so I told him to go back outside to the parking and make a few throws with a 7-ounce ball in the sock and let me know how it felt. Within 5 minutes I received his reply: “No Pain!”
When I read Nelson’s text, I let out a loud, “Whoo hoo!!” followed by, “Yes!! We got this!!!”
In our Start With The Pain system Nelson would be classified as a Level 2 intervention. This would typically involve a 25-day return to throwing program that would include sock throws, a connection ball, and a series of corrective throwing drills. As his movement pattern improved and his pain subsided, we would gradually wean him from the sock and the connection ball and then ramp up to full intent baseball throws.
But, Nelson didn’t have 25 days. His high school playoffs were set to begin in less than 2 weeks and I knew he really wanted to be there for his team.
Since Nelson had trained with us extensively and had demonstrated heightened body awareness for a player his age, I felt he would be able to make the necessary changes more quickly than most. I immediately went to work and wrote a 10-day return to throwing plan. He would spend the first 3 days performing 8 different corrective throwing drills in the training sock at 5 reps each (no baseball throws). Then each day he continue with his drills, shifting the ratio of sock throws to baseball throws to 4:1, 3:2, 2:3, 1:4, and 0:5. He would also taper his use of the connection ball until it was no longer needed. As always, Nelson’s pain would be our guide. He was instructed to keep the intensity of his throws below the pain threshold and to check in with me every day with a report on his progress. By the 10th day, Nelson was pain free with all his drill throws, so we decided to try the mound. He threw a 15-pitch bullpen without pain, and by the time the playoffs rolled around, he was ready to answer the bell.
Nelson continued to have a fantastic year on the summer travel ball circuit. And then last week, I got a text from his dad who was elated to report that Nelson had touched 89 mph, made the final cut and been placed on the roster for 15u Team USA. At the time of the text Nelson was on a plane to Columbia with his teammates on a mission to claim the title of World Champions.
We couldn’t be happier for Nelson and his family. This young man exemplifies the qualities of integrity, passion for the game, perseverance and the relentless pursuit of excellence we espouse. He is truly a “Ranch Guy.”
Good luck in Columbia Nelson!
From fearing a Tommy John injury to representing his country on the world’s biggest stage… what a ride that must have been for Nelson and his family!
Proud of you dude!!!
Now go bring home the Gold!!!
Randy Sullivan, MPT,CSCS
CEO, Florida Baseball Ranch
And here we go again. The long toss and weighted ball police are back at it.
I was perusing through twitter last week and saw this blast.
“Study. Max Distance Throwing Changes Mechanics and Puts More Stress On The Arm.”
It was accompanied by this infograph.
First of all… that study is not news. It came out in 2011.
But since we’re getting into it again, I guess I can engage.
The longstanding argument against long toss is as follows: 1)It increases joint stress in the elbow and the shoulder, and 2) throwing mechanics change with increased distance of throws.
Both are true…
And that is exactly why I like long toss… as a training tool.
Ok. So lets go through this again:
We’ll start with the “increases stress” argument.
People in the throwing universe tend to fall into one of 2 categories. You have the “there are only so many bullets in the gun so you should save them” crowd, and then there are those who believe you can load as many bullets as you need.
Here’s the deal. A physiologic principle known as Davis’s Law states that all connective tissue organizes itself to resist the stresses under which it is placed. Davis’s law applies to nearly ALL connective tissue — at least any tissue with a blood supply. Human tissue does not have a free will. It cannot decide not to participate. It can only respond to the stresses we put on it. Therefore, adding stress to a connective tissue will always force an adaptation that can make that tissue more resilient.
People in the “save your bullets” camp – some of them esteemed medical professionals – seem to believe that somehow, the UCL, the labrum, and the rotator cuff are “special” tissues not subject to the laws of nature and therefore cannot be made to become more robust. I would submit that you must add stress to those tissues if you plan to be a high level thrower. If you completely avoid stress you get weak, fragile connective tissue that could be vulnerable to injury. The key is to add stress incrementally over time, gradually increasing the tissue’s ability to resist. If you add stress too rapidly, the tissue fails. If you add it too often or for too long, the body begins to lay down the strongest tissue it knows (bone) and that becomes a calcification.
Opponents of long toss argue that increased stress on the elbow and shoulder makes it a dangerous practice. I would suggest that not “feeding the arm” with gradually increasing controlled stress as presented in Alan Jaeger’s well known long toss protocol could be even more dangerous.
Now let’s shift gears and tackle the second point of contention… “biomechanics change with increased distance”. You’ll get no objection from me on that one either. The biomechanics of long toss clearly change with every throw… and that’sthe beauty of it.
Let me explain.
In every human movement, there are components that must be stable and others that may vary. The stable components are known as “attractors”. The variable components of a movement are considered “fluctuators”. Attractors can be identified by The variable components of a movement are considered “fluctuators”. Attractors can be identified by finding patterns that are commonly demonstrated by performers across all levels and experience and ability. For example, ask a baby to throw a ball and he will usually lift his arm to about 90 degrees of shoulder abduction.
The same pattern is seen among the most elite and experienced throwers in baseball.
Movements with significant time pressures and those that put the athlete in “at risk” positions if not stable can also be attractors.
Three key attractors I have found in throwing are:
1) Isometric co-contraction of the trail hip musculature at the peak of lead leg lift. 2) Isometric co-contraction of the rotator cuff and peri-scapular musculature with the humerus abducted to about 90 degrees at lead leg weight bearing foot plant. And 3) Isometric co-contraction of the quads, hamstrings, calf, and hip musculature of the lead leg at weight bearing foot plant.
Fluxuators on the other hand are components of the movement that can vary between athletes and even between repetitions by a given athlete.
Examples of fluctuators might include differences in stride length, depth of back knee flexion, arm slot, lead leg action, tempo, or postural tilt. An adequate number or fluxuators are necessary, but having too many could be detrimental to performance and safety.
When movement attractors are stable, the body automatically begins to eliminates some fluxuators until only a few remain. With less options to choose from, the efficiency and effectiveness of the movement improves. However, if too many fluxuators are removed, the athlete loses adjustability. This can result in rigidity and lack or flow in his movement.
The “Anti-Long Toss” crowd apparently fails to recognize the neurophysiologic dynamics and variability demands of human movement. They’re hooked on the “SAID” principle. That’s an acronym for “Specific Adaptation To an Imposed Demand”. It’s a concept commonly referenced in gyms and physical therapy practices and it means that the body will adapt specifically to the exact demands placed on it. In other words, you don’t learn to putt golf balls by shooting baskets and you don’t strengthen your hamstrings by doing biceps curls. The SAID principle would suggest that the pitchers should only train with 5 oz baseball mound throws at 60’6”, because that represents the exact demand required in a game.
It seems logical until you understand the “degrees of freedom problem” as it relates to attractors and fluxuators.
Dr. Nikolai Bernstein first presented the degrees of freedom problem with his famous “blacksmith experiment”. In this investigation, he showed that the number of motor pattern options for performing any movement is virtually limitless and therefore rigidly repeating a movement is an impossibility.
The “repeatable delivery” does not exist.
Every single throw will present a unique set of subtle deviations or errors. Additionally a pitch doesn’t follow one specific pre-established motor pathway from start to finish. Instead, the neuromuscular system subconsciously adjusts that pattern’s pathway, intensity, timing and synergy throughout the throw. Instead of seeking a “repeatable delivery” we should be going after world-class, real time adjustability of movement.
To optimize movement efficiency you need some fluxuators (but not too many). If your training involves throwing only mound pitches from 60’ 6”, you engrain the attractors so deeply that all of the necessary fluxuators are eliminated and you have no adjustability. Now, when your arm begins to drift outside the rigid boundaries you’ve created, you have no pre-rehearsed motor plan to bring it back. With no capacity for adjustment, the arm could wander into areas beyond tissue failure thresholds, and injury could occur.
The key to safe and efficient throwing is to make sure your attractors are stable, but not toostable and to have just enough fluxuators available to allow sufficient choices for adjustment.
That is the beauty of long toss!
Every throw is a different distance with a different release point and a different coordinative demand. This variability allows you to practice the necessary adjustments subconsciously in a controlled environment, thereby becoming a more efficient and effective thrower.
This is also one reason weighted ball training can be an important tool – especially the way we use it at The Baseball Ranch®. A typical weighted ball protocol in our practice would involve performing 4 different deceleration/connection drills, 5-8 feet from a target pad while sequentially progressing downward in weight from a 2-pound ball, to a 21-ounce ball, to a 14-ounce ball, to a 7-ounce ball, to a 5-ounce baseball and finally to 3-ounce underload ball. Note: in our process, when making full arm action throws, we never go above a 7 ounce ball. In a recent study, Fleisig et al, noted that “pitching with slight variations in ball mass challenges the athlete’s neuromuscular awareness and coordination… and therefore seems like a reasonable variation for training pitchers.”
My sentiments exactly!
So does that mean I am encouraging every throwing athlete to go out today, purchase as set of weighted balls, find a football field and start chucking? Absolutely not! But once your delivery is connected, you are free from massive physical constraints, and you’ve have had an adequate ramp up period, then long toss and weighted ball throwing may be an essential addition to your overall training program.
The variable stimulus presented by long toss and weighted ball training could help you develop adaptable, adjustable movement patterns that add velo, improve command and decrease your risk of injury.
So actually, despite claims to the contrary by the long toss and weighted ball Gestapo, not using long toss and weighted balls could increase the likelihood of getting hurt.
OK, admittedly that subject line is a little extreme, I’ve been thinking about this a lot lately.
It seems like every kid that comes in to see me – especially the ones who have had lots of pitching lessons – does one thing in almost EXACTLY the same way.
And frankly, it’s driving me crazy!!
What is it you ask?
It’s this wasteful, cookie cutter little side step windup. Or maybe I should call it a non-step. I mean it’s kind of a step without stepping.
Look I’m not against it totally. I mean, I see a bunch of MLB guys doing it too. But does it have to be done by EVERY SINGLE AMATEUR PITCHER WHO EVER TOOK A PITCHING LESSON?
Many of the guys that come to see me are looking for increased velocity. Yet when I start the video rolling, nearly all of them do the same thing.
Tiny step to the side.
Lift the leg.
Pause at the top.
Put the leg down.
Try desperately to come up with some sort of momentum to home plate.
And chuck it up there about 78 mph.
It’s mind numbing!
If they’re going to let us wind up, why not take advantage and gain some momentum toward the plate?
I’ve seen guys get 2-3 mph bumps by simply starting with a bit of a back step and increasing their tempo to get moving toward home plate with some intent.
Remember back in the day when big leaguers would take those awesome “I’m about to ram this white thing down your throat” massive windups?
So where did this ridiculous little robotic, cloned side step come from?
My guess is that it’s the result of well-meaning yet uninformed pitching coaches with incomplete understanding of motor learning attempting to achieve the ubiquitous yet ever elusive unicorn known as the “repeatable delivery”.
(How’s that for unnecessary flowery language?)
They’re trying to simplify the delivery to make it “repeatable.”
There is no such thing as a “repeatable delivery!”
Nikolai Bernstein killed that theory with his famous blacksmith experiment that first introduced what motor learning scientists call the degrees of freedom problem.
Every pitch is an individual snowflake and will result in its own set of deviations or errors. Instead of trying to become mechanical repeaters, we should be trying to create world-class in-flight adjusters to all of those deviations.
But in attempt to achieve the unachievable, pitching coaches across the country have fallen prey to the mistaken assumption that the key to consistency is to “simplify” a pitcher’s mechanics. “There’s too many moving parts in that delivery,” they say. So they start taking things away.
But many times, when you simplify the delivery, you suppress athleticism and you stifle adjustability.
One of the finest pitching coaches I’ve ever seen is Flint Wallace. He coached both of my older sons at Weatherford College, a JUCO outside of Ft. Worth, TX, where he churned out D1 and MLB drafted pitchers like butter from a milk cow. Flint is now the Director of Player Development at the Texas Baseball Ranch where hyper-individualization reigns. But there is one thing Flint would never let any of his pitchers do…
THEY WEREN’T ALLOWED TO STEP TO THE SIDE!
He always demanded that every pitcher’s first move in the windup was to step behind the rubber.
So what’s the potential problem with the side step?
Well, aside from robbing the athlete much needed freedom and tempo, it could promote a quad dominant first move toward home plate.
When you step 90 degrees to the side of the rubber, you move your center of mass weight distribution toward the heel of the foot. Then you reverse direction and head forward toward the arm side dugout. To stop your momentum from taking you too far forward, you have to shift your weight to the ball of the foot. Some guys are able to accomplish this and make it back to a more neutral position with their weight distributed across the entire foot. But many guys just keep on going. When you do this, the knee slides forward of the toe forcing your quads to become more dominant than your glutes and projecting you toward the on deck circle.
Now your body knows it can’t throw the ball to the on deck circle so you have 3 choices:
You can plant your lead foot across your body and throw hook shots toward home plate.
You can fight your way back to the center line, a move that presents itself as some sort of disconnection – most commonly a lead leg opening early, a glove side pull, or an abrupt postural change.
You can push with your quads and leap off the rubber, immediately stoping your trail hip rotation and forcing you onto your lead leg prematurely and into an early launch.
None of these are good options.
So here’s the deal.
I’m not saying you have to take a back step, but let’s at least take it for a spin. Be willing to be a little different for a change.
Step back, or maybe even at a 45-degree angle, gain some momentum and see what happens. It might be a little uncomfortable at first. And of course, if it hurts you should bag it and move on. But I’m guessing you might be surprised at the results.
We still have some spots available for our Elite Performer’s Boot Camp July 15/16.
Add some velo. We just had 185th 90 mph guy… you could be next.
Solve your arm pain. We literally just wrote the book on arm pain management. It’s call Start With The Pain
When you attend an Elite Performer’s Boot Camp, you’ll get a personalized plan to get you on track for greatness beyond your wildest imagination.
“Man! My trainer crushed me today! My legs are toast! I’m gonna be sore tomorrow for sure! That was a great workout!”
I hear it all the time, and it’s a common flaw in thinking and in training.
Any moron can make you sore.
All we need to do to make you sore is to require you to something different than what your body is used to. Or, we can take you to muscle fatigue outside the ATP/CP system, entering the glycolytic system that kicks out lactic acid as a byproduct, and you will be sore…
Sore does not equal good!
Let’s start this discussion by asking the simple question, “What is the purpose of the weight room?”
TO MAKE YOU PLAY BETTER… PERIOD!
If the training doesn’t transfer to improved performance, it is nothing more than a circus act or a parlor trick.
Many strength and conditioning specialists, personal trainers, and coaches claim to have workouts and exercises that transfer strength and power training to improved on-the-field performance. Often they provide anecdotal evidence or testimonials about player X who “added 20 lbs of muscle in the off-season” and then had a great year.
However, as Dr. Frans Bosch points out, there are no good studies available that clearly demonstrate the transfer of classical
strength training to improved performance. That’s understandable. Such a study would be very difficult if not impossible to perform, and I don’t know how one would begin to measure or quantify the contribution of strength training to overall performance.
Over the last 12 months as I’ve studied for my Certified Strength And Conditioning Specialist exam, a flurry of ideas on training have bombarded my brain. Let me start by saying, I don’t have all the answers and I know I never will. But, I recently finished reading Dr. Bosch’s book Strength Training and Coordination: An Integrative Approach (for the third time) and now a few important, formerly hazy points have come into clear view.
One thing I am sure of is that simply grinding through the same workouts or crushing heavier and heavier weights will not get it done. Bigger and stronger won’t necessarily make you throw harder. It’s far more complicated than that.
Social media has been abuzz with videos of Aroldis Chapman crushing it in the weight room. People are marveling at the intensity of his high load workouts. The inference is, “Lift heavy things and you’ll throw harder.”
Well, as long as we’re talking anecdotes with no scientific backing, let me share something with you. At the beginning of spring training this year two 10-year high level major leaguers came into The Ranch for their preseason evaluations. Both guys have thrown fastballs in MLB games greater than 100 mph.
When they removed their shirts for the precursory scapular evaluation, it became clear that they were in incredible shape… if
you consider “pear” a shape.
Many other upper 90s guys, one very popular on the internet, don’t have rocked up bodies either.
My point is this: for every sculpted Adonis, Calvin Kline model-looking MLB flamethrower, there are a dozen or more guys with bad bodies who do just fine. So, is the work in the weight room really responsible for their success?
but maybe not.
For starters we have to understand how a dynamic system learns/adapts. According to Dr. Bosch, “Dynamic systems must be panicked into adaptation. The human body is not interested in what it knows or with what is familiar. It only wants what is new or different from the norm.” So, if you just keep hammering the same exercises and adding load, it won’t be long until your body will begin to accommodate to the stress and no further adaptation will occur.
Furthermore, if your workout rep scheme consists of 8-12 reps to muscle fatigue, your muscles will hypertrophy (they’ll get
bigger), and that isn’t always a good thing. Even if you’re able to maintain your mobility while you add mass, every time you create hypertrophy, you change the orientation of your muscle fibers, and that requires a new motor program to control it. For all the anthropology majors out there, that means if you jack up your bi’s and tri’s and kill a lot of bench press, you’re going to have to learn a new throwing pattern. Sure, you might be able to pull it off… or it might have significant negative consequences.
Let’s say you’re not working for hypertrophy, but instead you’re pounding out pure, unbridled strength. If you’re in the gym doing dead lifts and squats at less than 5 reps per exercise and close to your 1 or 3-rep max, you’re working in the strength zone. But, the problem with lifts like that can be found in a concept known as rate of force development (RFD). When you perform a slow, heavy lift you reach your maximum force production at about 2 seconds into the movement. Compare that to a pitch that from start to finish which takes about 1-1.5 seconds, and you’re training your body to be about ½ second late.
Some would argue that Olympic lifts like power cleans, high pulls and snatches would solve the RFD problem. Athletes
performing these lifts do reach their maximum force development within the time demands of a pitch, but in my opinion, they are not similar enough to the throwing movement to produce the intended adaptation.
What we’re talking about here is an exercise and therapy tenet known as the SAID principle. That’s an acronym for a “Specific Adaption To An Imposed Demand.” Your body will adapt specifically and predictably to the exact demands you place on it. It has to. It has no choice, because human tissue has no free will. It cannot decide not to participate. It must respond to the stresses we force it to endure. That means you had better be sure the stresses you are placing on your tissue are specific to the activity you are trying to improve. And, if you closely examine classical strength training, most programs fall woefully short in many ways.
According to Dr. Bosch, there are some huge flaws in the current approach to training as it relates to transfer and specificity. “Strength training,” he says, “should be coordination training with resistance.” Strength training must be specific to the motor control and coordination demands of throwing.
That sounds like the only appropriate training for a throwing athlete is… throwing.
But, you can’t just stand and throw 5 oz baseballs at 60’ 6” all day. That would indeed be specific, but the more specific an activity becomes, the less you will be able to shock the body into adaptation by adding load. Obviously, one can’t imagine standing on the mound and hurling 20 lb dumbbells, but it goes deeper than that. Clearly that would not be safe. However, throwing only 5 oz baseballs off the mound, avoiding variable weighted balls or not changing the distances of throws (as in long toss) might even have dire negative consequences.
Let me explain.
When it comes to coordination and specificity, you have to remember that the unicorn known as a “repeatable delivery” does not exist. You cannot repeat your mechanics. As early as the 1920’s, Dr. Nikolai Bernstein, the father of motor learning, and the guy who coined the term “biomechanics,” proved it with his famous Blacksmith Experiment. He took some of Russia’s greatest blacksmith, fitted them with lights at key places on their arms (the first wearable biomarkers) and used serial photography and motion pictures to track the path of their arms as they performed the singular task of pounding a nail into a log. Remarkably, none of the subjects in the study were able to repeat their arm path on any of the trials.
Similarly, every throw you make will result in a subtle deviation or error. You will not be able to make the exact same throw twice. Instead of searching for a repeatable delivery, you should be working on becoming a world class, real time, in flight adjuster to all the errors you make. To do that you must practice making the adjustment and you must do so subconsciously. There is not enough time for the neuromuscular system to make any meaningful adjustments to a throw by way of a cognitive or conscious input. You must use variable stimulus to train that adjustment.
That brings us to a perplexing training problem. You have to load the system to elicit an adaptation and at the same time you have to make that load specific to the throwing movement. But, specificity and load are often opposed. The more you load an activity, the less specific it becomes.
To solve this problem we must investigate the nature of specificity. As Dr. Bosch admits, “There is no proper research or summation as to how the specificity matrix is structured, only a set of vague assumptions.” In his book, Dr. Bosch asks us to consider five categories of specificity when making training exercises similar to the targeted movement.
Similarity in muscular coordination. He breaks this down into:
intramuscular coordination – the activity must target the muscle or muscles needed to perform the movement and
intermuscular coordination – it must simulate the required cooperation (timing and synergy) between recruited muscles.
Similarity in outer structure of the movement. That is, similar excursion of the joints (planes of movement).
Similarity in energy production. For example, long distance running requires a different energy system than throwing a baseball (see my previous blog called “Why We Don’t Run Long Distances”).
Similarity in sensory pattern (as it relates to environmental stimulus and/or internal proprioception). An example of this would be flat ground versus mound throwing.
Similarity in the intention of the movement. Training done at 100% intent will require a vastly different coordination pattern than ½ speed or slow motion drills.
Specificity and load characteristics can be divided into 3 categories:
Type 1: High specificity, low/no load
Type 2: Moderate specificity, moderate load
Type 3: Low specificity, heavy load
For a training program to be effective it must include exercise doses that span the spectrum of the specificity/load continuum.
Based on our experience at The Florida Baseball Ranch we recommend the following ratios:
15% Type 1: high specificity, no/low load
70% Type 2: moderate specificity, moderate load
15% Type 3: low specificity, heavy load
Type 1 exercises: Some examples of Type 1 exercises would include bullpens, live batting practice, weighted ballS, wrist weights, long toss, elastic bands and the Durathro Training Sock. These are all highly specific to the throwing motion, but the load and variability are low.
Type 2 exercises would include many of the plyometric activities we use in our power building circuit training. These exercises use various implements like medicine balls, slam nets, plyo boxes etc., to add moderate resistance to exercises that offer moderate similarity to the throwing movement. We program these workouts so they are specific to the ATP/CP energy system and we try to ensure that 80% of the time they are performed under one or more of the types of movements we call “the four pillars”. Our four pillars are the result of an in-house pseudo-study we did back in 2011-2013.
When we opened our doors in 2009, we assembled a toolbox of over 500 different exercises using a wide array of apparatus. We worked hard within the ATP/CP system, but I knew that not all of the exercises were transferring to increased power on the mound. So, I hired a computer guy to design a customized software program we called our “training manager.” It allowed us to collect in real time, the number of reps per second our athletes could perform on each of the exercises. We used clips of 5, 8, 10
and 12 seconds. After 2 ½ years we grouped the exercises into 6 categories: frontal (coronal) plane exercises (exercises moving from side- to-side), transverse plane exercises (exercises rotating around a vertical axis), sagittal plane exercises (exercises moving forward and backwards), diagonal plane exercises, exercises done predominantly on two legs (bilateral), and those done on one leg (unilateral).
At the time of the study, we had 16 guys throwing 90 mph. We compared those 16 guys’ performances to those of a group of similar size, age, and experience who were throwing in the low to mid 80’s. When we analyzed our information, it became clear that the 90 mph guys were way better than the 80 mph guys at 4 types of exercises. They were better at frontal plane exercises, transverse plane exercises, diagonal plane exercises and exercises done on one leg. We named those types of exercises “The Fab Four Pillars.” The two groups showed no difference on exercises done in the sagittal plane or on exercises done on two legs.
We could not draw any definitive conclusions from the research. There were too many variables we could not control. The primary lack of control was evident in the technique, during the performance of the exercises. While striving to break personal records on every trial, many of our athletes began cheating or shorting the range of motion excursion to achieve more and more reps.
Even though we knew our investigation was not completely scientific, we decided to take action any way. After all, it seemed to make sense since pitching definitely involves a side-to-side plane, a rotational component, diagonal movement and the pitching movement is essentially a one-legged maneuver. We concluded our study in March of 2013 and reorganized our power workouts so that 80% of our exercises were performed in one or more of the 4 pillars. By August of that year we had seen an additional 42 pitchers eclipse the 90-mph threshold. The types of exercises we do in our power circuits are representative of moderate specificity and moderate load.
Type 3 exercises are would include traditional lifts such as deadlifts and squats. Slow/heavy lifts are very low in specificity but very high in load.
THIS IS NOT SPECIFIC
No matter how you program your workload, all three types of exercises must be laced with some degree of specificity. When we are working on Type 3 exercises, we try to weave in some specificity by integrating movements in the 4 pillars. For example, instead of performing traditional deadlifts or bilateral squats, we employ single leg squats, Bulgarian split squats or single leg RDLs. Throwing a baseball is essentially a one-legged maneuver. You have to be able to control and accelerate your center of mass while moving down the mound on one leg. Then you must absorb the forces you create after you shift to a strong, stable front leg.
Dr. Bosch, referencing his work with Olympic level high jumpers says, “I have a lot of experience with people who do a lot of double leg squatting and they’re very poor on one leg.” This would imply that perhaps a heavy dose of double leg squats and dead lifts might have a negative transfer effect on throwers who must operate largely on one leg.
You also need to introduce some degree of overload into the Type 1 exercises you employ. It’s important to note that “load” doesn’t necessarily have to mean adding weight or resistance. When it comes to stimulating adaptation, “load” can also mean variability. Variability alerts the system and elicits adaptations in coordination and motor control similar to the manner in which overload with heavy weights produces hypertrophy and strength gains.
Variability can be achieved in one of 3 ways. 1) You can change the athlete. 2) You can change the task or 3) You can change the environment
Changing The Athlete:
In Dr. Bosch’s book he refers to fatigue-induced adaptation. As an example, you could have the athlete perform one arm biceps curls to fatigue, then have him throw. That seems a little sketchy to me from the standpoint of safety and I’m not yet ready to climb out on that limb. A more reasonable approach to variability within the athlete might be to have him throw in various states of overall fatigue. My high school basketball coach used to have us shoot free throws at various times during practice so we would learn to perform in different states of fatigue. Performing your conditioning prior to your throwing routine is a reasonable method for producing fatigue and for learning to throw with an elevated heart rate (which might simulate the psychological stresses of a competitive game).
Changing The Task:
This can be achieved in a variety of ways. Our series of graduated weighted balls alters the task between each throw. Long toss alters the task. The Durathro Training Sock alters the task, as do the wide array of drills we utilize to correct mechanical inefficiencies. Variability in drill work can be vital to the development of adjustability in a throwing athlete.
Changing The Environment:
At The Florida Baseball Ranch, we strive to constantly challenge the sensory and motor control demands on our athletes. We tilt mounds toward the glove side, away from the glove side, uphill and downhill. We throw off of flat ground and we throw off of BOSU balls. We perform a combination of running throws, stationary throws and mound pitches. Our purpose is to add as much variety (load) to the specific throwing movement as we can.
One more note of importance about adding variability: Variability added by manipulating the athlete, the task or the environment must be treated just like adding resistance during classical strength training. Variability must be on-ramped and increased gradually. The idea is to alert the neuromuscular system with an ever-changing novel stimulus without overwhelming it.
Attractors and Fluxuators:
If you’re going to find most efficient and effective way to train, another extremely important concept to understand is the presence of what Dr. Bosch calls “Attractors and Fluxuators.” Understanding the difference can guide you toward workouts that emphasize the most stable parts of a movement while allowing freedom and adjustability to a variable environment.
In all human movement there are an infinite number of ways to accomplish the same goal. In motor learning, researchers call this “degrees of freedom.” But, there are also a few characteristics of every movement that serve to stabilize the entire pattern. These are known as attractors.
Bosch notes, “Attractors can be identified by searching for common movements, time pressures and at-risk positions.” All other components of the movement are known as “fluxuators.” Fluxuators are necessary to allow the athlete to adapt the movement to dynamic stimuli, such as environmental changes or movement deviations. For a movement to be as efficient as possible, the attractors must be stable and the number of fluxuators must be limited. Identifying the attractors must be the starting point for any movement analysis.
Here’s my take on the attractors in pitching. I’m not completely settled on these, but hopefully this will be the foundation for further discussion.
1) Inverted iron pyramid weight distribution at the peak of leg lift on the back leg with co-
contraction of all the muscles around the back hip.
2) Double crow hop depth of knee flexion on the back leg during the glute load — butt behind heel, knee not forward of toe indicating glute dominance, not quad dominance.
3) Stable foot foot plan from above at weight bearing foot plant on lead leg. Lead foot lands from above (as opposed to sliding in) as a result of back hip rotation and lead hip extension prior to foot strike.
4) Co-contraction around the knee at weight bearing foot plant of the lead leg (no forward leakage or lateral instability of the front leg).
5) Arm at or near 90 degrees of abduction, elbow flexed 90 degrees or less with co-contraction of entire rotator cuff, and scapular musculature at final connection (weight bearing foot plant of lead leg).
6) Late launch by way of proper hip/torso rotation at ball release.
In my experience, all other disconnections are either coached into a pitcher’s delivery or they’re a compensatory move for instability in one of the attractors.
Unfortunately, the current traditional coaching paradigm often fails to understand that if you get the attractors right, the fluxuators will usually minimize themselves. Trying to force unnatural compliance of the fluxuators into a mythical “ideal model” through verbal cuing or cognitive input goes against the natural flow of motor learning. Examples of fluctuators in the pitching movement would include: postural tilt, timing of hand break, and activity of lead leg while it’s in the air. Nothing corrupts a movement faster than training the fluxuators while ignoring the attractors.
In the gym, our focus is to force co-contraction of musculature around the attractors. How do we do that? By adding instability/variability. When attractors are faced with perturbations or instability, they automatically go into cocontraction, allowing the fluxuators to adjust to the environment and accomplish the task.
Aqua bags, Khaos balls, plates dangling from elastic bands with a bar across upper traps are great tools for adding variability (load) and forcing co-contraction of atttractors. Adding these to task specific exercises like single leg RDLs, Bulgarian split squats, pistol squats and other innovative exercises in the frontal, transverse and diagonal planes, can improve both load and specificity.
The FBR Summer Training Program will adhere to the principles set forth in this article. We’ll be collecting data on the performance of all students. We can’t wait to share the results with you.
For more information about our world class summer training program, CLICK HERE. If you’re interested in joining us for 2-10 weeks of life-changing work, call us at 866-787-4533 before April 22nd and receive a huge discount.
Last summer, Jordan Conti from Gaenton, Michigan spent a couple of weeks with us. Here’s how it worked out for him.
“I came to the ranch in August for two weeks, best decision of my baseball life thus far. (jumped from 83-89 off the mound with no arm pain)!!!
Add rocket level velo, improve your secondary stuff, turbo-boost your command and eliminate your arm pain!
We’ll see you at the Ranch!
Randy Sullivan, MPT, CSCS
Bosch F, Strength Training and Coordination: An Integrative Approach, 2010 Publishers, 2015.
Boone, Jerry. 2016. Coach Your Best Podcast. Strength Training and Coordination pt 1,2,3. www.athletebydesign.com/bosch
Burke,Robby.2016/Podcast All Things Strength and Wellness. Episode 100:Interview with Frans Bosch – Strength Training and Coordination. www.upmentorship.com
Oates Specialties is a family owned and operated business. Since starting the company in 2003 with baseball as its primary focus, Robert and Gloria Oates, along with their son Brian, have worked diligently to develop a line of quality athletic conditioning tools that is unparalleled. We hope you enjoy our product line, videos, and blog. Contact us if we can help you in any way!