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Tag Archives: guest post

  • How We Individualize Workload To Decrease Injury Risk And Maximize Performance Gains : By Randy Sullivan, MPT, CSCS

    To become an elite throwing athlete, you need to throw … a lot.

    Quick, off the top of your head, name me one skill in life where becoming elite at that skill involves …


    You want to be a great guitar player?


    Here’s what you do … 

    Don’t play guitar too much.

    Save your bullets.

    Take three months off every year to give your body time to recover.

    You want to be a great chemist?

    Ok, listen up.

    Whatever you do … 

    Don’t do too much chemistry


    When you want to do something well, doing that thing a lot seems ridiculously self-evident.

    Yet if you ask medical experts and baseball traditionalists about the key to preventing throwing injuries, that’s exactly what we hear.  

    It stems from what I believe to be a fundamentally flawed assumption — that all throwing injuries are due to OVERUSE.

    When the assumption is that OVERUSE is the cause of injury, the natural course of treatment is UNDERUSE.

    Limit pitch counts.

    Control innings pitched.

    Take 3 months off every year.

    Those were the recommendations, and most of the baseball world fell in lockstep without question.

    Programs around the country implemented the restrictions, but to the experts’ surprise, injury rates continued to rise. 

    When the data showed no impact on injury rates with rest and “overuse” avoidance, the experts doubled down.  

    “They’re not being obedient … not doing what we said they should do.”

    Soon it became political.

    Any coach at any level who allowed a pitcher to go beyond these arbitrary limits was labeled ignorant, irresponsible, reckless, and even abusive.  Governing boards legislated limits that would lead to disciplinary action if breached.

    Coaches and organizations complied. Yet injury rates kept climbing. 

    Let’s face it. We’ve been chasing pitch counts and innings limits for nearly two decades, and it doesn’t seem to have had any influence on slowing the injury rate. Yet, we continue to mandate draconian restrictions.

    It’s mind-boggling, really.

    It defies logic, and the laws of physiology. 

    Davis’s law in physiology states that all human tissue remodels and aligns itself to resist the stress under which it is place. Any tissue with a blood supply is capable of making itself more robust and resistant to injury. However, it must be is exposed to the right stress. The body will always adapt. For positive adaptations, we must add stress to vulnerable tissue. If we withhold stress, we’re sure to get unwanted negative adaptations.

    Send an astronaut into space for 30 days. In the absence of gravity, his body adapts negatively. When he comes down to earth, his bones are brittle, and his muscles are weak because he hasn’t been exposed to stress.

    The irony is apparent.

    In our noble effort to prevent injury by reducing exposure to stress, we may be making our athletes more vulnerable.

    We must add stress.

    But, we must control that stress, adding it slowly, incrementally, over time.

    If we add it too quickly, the tissue will fail. If we add it at high intensity for too long, the body will respond by laying down the most hardened tissue it can muster — bone. The result will be calcifications and/or arthritic spurs. 

    Please understand, I’m not saying workload doesn’t matter.

    There is a reasonable limit to how much an athlete should throw. However, that limit should be determined on a case-by-case basis.

    You see, managing arm health is far deeper and more complex than merely counting pitches. Arm health and performance involves optimizing what my friend Ron Wolforth calls The Six Types of Contributors To Sub-Par Performance and/Or Pain.  

    Here they are shown in their order of importance.

    If types 1 thru 5 are right, the pitcher could (and should) throw a lot.

    If types 1 thru 5 are wrong, 10 pitches may be too much.

    At least 2-3 times per week, we get calls and visits from players whose loving parents are beside themselves.

    “I don’t know how he got hurt. He never went over the pitch count.”

    We understand.  

    Most parents don’t let their son throw too much. However, in many cases, their sons simply aren’t ready to handle even the smallest amount of  workload. They haven’t stabilized the first five types of contributors. 

    At the Ranch consortium, we want our students to throw a lot, but we also understand that workload must be individualized.  Not everyone is ready to throw a lot.  A couple of years ago, we realized we needed to create a process for objectively measuring and calculating an athlete’s readiness to tolerate high volume throwing.

    At the Florida Baseball Ranch, we measure EVERYTHING.  We enter all of that information into a database we keep on an app in our iPads on the training floor. Our analytics department has formulaically quantified and weighted each possible contributing variable.

    We combine that information with ramp-up data, pain and recovery audits, and performance-related factors like velocity changes, strike percentages, and ball flight metrics. Then we run that data through an algorithm we developed that produces an on-going Arm Readiness Measurement (A.R.M.). This score ranges from 0 to 100 and allows us to individually predict the amount of work each player can tolerate.

    Last fall, the father of one of our 17-year-old students approached me before a training session and said, “Hey, my son threw 90 pitches in a game with his travel team this weekend. Does that seem excessive to you?” 

    “Hold on a minute,” I replied. I typed the player’s name into our Ipad App and called up his A.R.M. “No.” I said. His readiness score is 88 out of 100, so he should be able to tolerate 90 pitches just fine.”

    If the player had scored a 20 on the A.R.M. we would have had a reason for concern. More importantly, we would have needed to dig deeper into his assessment to determine why he had scored so low. Then we would have gotten to work on correcting his deficits so he could score higher on the A.R.M.  

    Imagine you’re a college pitching coach, or you run a travel ball organization. You enter a weekend series or a tournament with 10 pitchers. Three have A.R.M. scores of 80 or above. Four are sitting between 50 and 75, and three are below 35.  You’ll need to lean on the 80+ guys to handle most of the innings.  The four in the middle can eat up a fair portion, but the 35 and below group will probably be limited to only a few innings each.  After the series, you can address the discrepancies that led to the lower scores so they can handle more innings in the future.

    If you want to improve your velocity, your command, or your secondary stuff, you have to throw a lot. But, before you do, you’d better be sure you’re ready to throw a lot.

    Before you make another throw, or pitch in another game, call us at 866-787-4533.

    We’ll develop a customized training plan that links your hardware to your software, and optimizes your warmup and ramp-up. We’ll write a strength and conditioning program that will aid in your readiness and turbo-boost your development. When you execute your plan, you’ll be able to throw safely and with enough volume to accelerate your progress at warp speed.  

    You’ll throw harder.

    You’ll throw more strikes.

    You’ll have nasty secondary stuff.

    And, you’ll do it all without pain!

    We’ll be with you every step of the way to guide you through your process.

    We can’t wait to see you at The Ranch.

    Call us at 866-787-4533

    Randy Sullivan, MPT, CSCS

    CEO, Florida Baseball Ranch

  • August 2020 ENewsletter: By The Way, Have I Told You About Injuries This Year? : By Jim Wagner

    As also mentioned in last month’s newsletter, I said this would be the year of injuries. Remember? I said it enough times that some people even said to me, “Yes, you did say that, and your point?”

    Now, let me clarify something regarding all my talk about injuries. I may have written about it last month, but I’ve been telling everyone about it since APRIL. I’ve been screaming about this.

    Does this make my predictions even more powerful given there have, in fact, been a number of injuries since the MLB season and youth travel ball began again? Maybe, but there was a rhyme to my reason.

    The mind is so powerful; it can will us to do great things. The mind is also powerful enough to make us do things that can bring us pain and injury.

    Ever since March, when every sport had been cancelled, players could not wait to get back to playing games and for good reason.

    Schools had children staying home all day. People like Dr. Fauci, Dr. Ferrer, and others were telling us what we could and could not do. We were told “no” time after time. So baseball players quarantined, just like the rest of the nation, and became very sedentary and lethargic. Video games, Netflix, and television made us lazy. To be honest, I watched all nine seasons of “The Office,” which I’d never have done if we’d kept on going. But our emotions and thoughts around baseball never left our minds.

    So when the state started opening up again, numerous coaches immediately had their travel teams start practicing up to three times a week, while other coaches took their teams to places like Arizona to play from 3 to 6 games over one weekend.

    The coaches needed to coach, and the players were SO ready to play again. Mentally and emotionally at least, they were so ready to play.

    But a funny, well not too funny, thing happened. Their sedentary bodies weren’t ready for the physical part of the game. Oblique injuries appeared, groin and hamstring tightness became very real, and, most importantly, elbows and shoulders got tired, hurt, and, in some cases, injured to the point where players are still on the mend.

    It’s a sad state of affairs in baseball when injuries occur. But how could they not? Young bodies were not, and are still not, ready for the rigors these coaches are placing on them. It became a matter of, “Hurry up, because we have a game next weekend.” It’s shameful coaches had their teams playing game after game when their players weren’t anywhere near the level they needed to be at to play a game, let alone win.

    I know of one coach who had one of his star pitchers throw for 6 innings so they could get to the championship game of a tournament.

    It’s disgusting, and they wonder how a kid could get hurt. That coach said, “His arm should have been ready while we were all in quarantine.” Needless to say, I advised the parents of this player to immediately leave this type of environment. When the goal is winning instead of development at such a young age, then that coach is doing a great disservice to the entire family. In fact, you could argue it’s a form of child abuse, but that’s for another time.

    When the MLB voted to play an abbreviated season, I told Warren at class that the injury bug was going to get those players. They only had three weeks of summer training, and in less than a week a whole slew of pitchers went down: Clayton Kershaw, Justin Verlander (as well as 8 other Houston pitchers, 7 of whom were called up and had never pitched in big leagues before), Cole Hamels, Dillon Tate, Noah Syndergaard, Chris Sale, Jose Quintana, Jordan Zimmerman, Mike Montgomery, Alex Wood, and Jimmy Nelson. The list goes on and on.

    This doesn’t even include the Angel’s Anthony Rendon (out with an oblique injury). If you look at the MLB injury list, it must have at least 180 names. Some are COVID-19 related, but a vast majority are from injuries from training or from the first several games of the season.

    My final point on this subject is to say that ALL players must be careful while getting back into shape. The MLB is different because these are grown men taking responsibility for themselves. However, we must take responsibility as parents, and myself as a teacher, to make sure our players are training accordingly and not just going out to the field at full speed.

    When we began our summer training, our players weren’t allowed to use the radar gun if they hadn’t been throwing for a period of time. Fortunately, a number of our campers are players who had already been working with us so we had an idea of where they were with regard to their workload. But if I just had players throwing immediately to a radar gun, then shame on me. However, I had an idea of who had trained accordingly and who had not.

    As schools go back online this month (on a personal note, I hate that the social development of young and healthy kids is being put at risk, including the isolation my daughter goes through every day), it’s going to be imperative that your player is getting in the repetitions he needs so as to be ready when games start up again. I constantly remind players that games WILL begin again, and they need to be ready.

    Here’s where we can help:

    Our weekly training sessions are ongoing. The 7:30pm Advanced Training Class (ATC) begins on Wednesday, August 12th. Our safety protocols are still in place and strictly enforced. Throwzone Academy is functioning with the safety of our players and their parents in mind.

    Allow us to be part of your son’s development. In fact, we can be utilized as part of your child’s physical education portion of the day, and I can sign any paperwork you need as proof. Allow us to put your child in the best possible position to avoid the risk of injuries.

    Not all injuries are alike and while we can never say players won’t get hurt, working with us WILL LESSEN the risk. We can proudly say that, and the proof is in our years of experience and in the number of players who have moved on to the next level, staying healthy and on the field all the while.

    We have several opportunities available and can start working with your son today. Call us at 661-644-2147 and begin a journey toward getting your son to the level he expects and needs to be at in order to reach his goals in his baseball career.

    Until next time…


  • Maximizing Your Off-Season Throwing: By Coach Flint Wallace

    I read a quote from Eric Cressey the other day, “The most important preparation for a successful OFF-SEASON is an effective IN SEASON training plan. You’ll never make optimal long-term progress if you struggle once a year to get back to the same initial starting point.”


    He is inferring that the best way to make continual gains in strength during the off-season is to not regress during the season from the gains made in the previous off-season.


    At the Texas Baseball Ranch, we believe the same is true when it comes to throwing, but in a little different sense… taking time off during the off-season.


    If we take a significant amount of time off from throwing completely in the off-season, like it often is suggested, then it is going to be extremely hard to continually make gains from one year to the next.


    For example, if a pitcher takes 6 weeks completely off from throwing, it’s going to take him at least 6 more weeks (if not longer) just to get back to where he was before. This is now 12+ weeks (3+ months) until the player is ready to try to improve upon his velocity, command, secondary stuff, etc.


    Because of that, he has drastically reduced or even eliminated the amount of time he has to get better before the next season starts.


    Rest is not the same as recovery. Rest causes atrophy.


    We are not saying a pitcher should pitch year-round, throw bullpens, or do a Velocity Enhancement Program for the entire off-season, but we do believe that a pitcher should continue to throw year-round while cycling in an active recovery period of throwing for a few weeks after the season.


    This is a period where he continues to throw, just not in a max-effort or high-volume manner that could cause trauma. Instead, in a manner that is working on connection and restoring proper throwing movements.


    An example would be playing catch or throwing in the Durathro™ Sock using drills that limit your degrees of freedom, like Marshall 1 and Walking Torques, for a few weeks.


    This way, the ramp up back to where he was beforehand should only take a few weeks.


    Now he has added 6 extra weeks or more to make improvements before he has to go into preseason mode and start getting ready for the next season.


    So, if you are struggling to make optimal long-term progress in your throwing, then making sure you maximize your off-season training is critical. And the best way to do that is to continue to throw.


    If you did stop throwing completely, don’t panic! Just start back up ASAP and allow your ramp up to be at least as long as your time off was. We see a lot of injuries happen because the ramp up time in the off-season is too short to be ready for the season.


    Until Next Time… Keep Getting After It!


    – – – – – – – – – – –


    There are some very specific ways for you to get involved with us at the Texas Baseball Ranch over the next couple months. We’d love to have you join us for one of them…


    For Pitchers: We have 3 Elite Pitchers Bootcamp dates (Thanksgiving Break, Christmas Break & Martin Luther King Holiday.  For more information go to:


    For Catchers: (Yes, you read that right!) We’re excited to announce our first Elite Catchers Boot Camp for catchers ages 14 & up. The camp is full but you can be added to a wait list should someone cancel. More information on this event and the amazing group of instructors can be found at:


    For Coaches: Order the DVDs for our upcoming (December) Ultimate Pitching Coaches Bootcamp.  The event itself has sold out but you can still purchase the DVDs at the regular rate until Oct. 31st (Save $100).   This event is known as the Gold Standard in the industry and this year’s lineup of speakers is incredible!  Check it out at

  • When It Comes to Arm Issues… By: Coach Ron Wolforth

    In the span of 30 days, we at the Texas Baseball Ranch® had conversations with two DI pitching coaches, two DII head coaches, one DIII head coach, and an NAIA pitching coach, all about the exact same phenomenon.


    I thought it might be a perfect time to address this issue.


    Here is a synopsis of what they all said:


    1. Their team has historically done a very good job avoiding arm issues and surgical interventions.


    1. The last couple of years they have seen a definite upswing in the number of their pitchers coming to campus with a weighted ball throwing program and all the requisite paraphernalia.


    1. These young men with the choreographed throwing programs end up getting hurt, having extended periods on the shelf, or need surgery at a rather alarming rate that far exceeds the rate of their other pitchers.


    1. While they certainly don’t want to micromanage or forbid their pitchers from seeking outside help, they really can’t afford to lose any of their top guys to injury, and they are seriously thinking about limiting or forbidding their pitchers from such programs.


    They really wanted to hear our perspective on this phenomenon.


    Success Leaves Clues-
    The Unsuccessful Leave Debris Scattered Across the Landscape


    Here is a synopsis of our discussions with these men:


    For starters, let’s take this completely out of the baseball realm for a moment. For the ailment of high blood pressure, an MD has dozens and dozens of different medications in his/her tool box that he/she can prescribe. What the doctor tries to do, based upon the patient’s histrionics, assessments, and tests, is prescribe a regimen including dosage, frequency, and duration that best fits their patient. They then schedule a follow up appointment and retest and reassess to see how the prescription worked, and if needed, change the medication (choose a different tool) or modify the dosage and frequency.


    Next let’s look at world class strength coaches such as Eric Cressey or Lee Fiocchi. Eric and Lee have dozens and dozens of different options in their strength development tool box that they can prescribe. What they do, based upon the athlete’s histrionics, assessments, and tests, is prescribe a specific strength regimen including intensity, volume, and frequency that best fits the current needs of their athlete. They then closely follow the athlete’s progress and retest and reassess to see how the prescription worked, and if needed, change their program or modify the intensity, volume, and frequency.


    Far too often in the medical community, some doctors get stuck or are courted by and/or financially incentivized by pharmaceuticalreps to prescribe a specific medication for a certain ailment. Thereby often giving a ‘stock solution’ to otherwise very unique individuals with similar symptoms. As we all can imagine, this rarely goes well. In the medical profession, there is a very appropriate mantra, “Diagnosis and prescription without assessment can lead to malpractice”.


    Likewise, in the strength development community, some trainers prescribe a ‘one size fits all’ ‘stock solution’ to strength development. In essence, they have, in their opinion, one very, very good tool and they prescribe it to every one of their athletes. Over the years I have seen first-hand the negative repercussions and unintended detrimental consequences with homogenized strength programs. This is in large part what separates Eric and Lee. They are meticulous on performing their due diligence for the benefit of their individual clients.


    In our opinion, we private instructors, pitching coaches, and head coaches should hold ourselves to the same high standard.


    The Problem Is Real and It Is Not Going Away Any Time Soon


    Returning now to the question surrounding the college and high school pitcher: “Should we then be surprised when an athlete shows up with a ‘stock’ weighted ball or throwing program and becomes injured or has arm issues?”  Answer:I don’t believe so. In fact, I’m personally surprised more aren’t injured. ‘One size fits all’ programing, even those that are sound, will of course often have very uneven results when applied to a universal population.


    By the way, I’ve learned this the hard way. In 2006 we had one regimen that we THOUGHT was extremely good. It worked very well for some, it didn’t help others at all, and some it actually took backwards. It was a very humbling lesson for us. Today, in 2019, we have literally dozens of paths an athlete can take, and we use the diagram to below as our foundation. I think it is a great guide for most people who work with groups of athletes.

    #1 First we assess to find out where the athlete is currently.


    #2 Then we place the athletes in the most appropriate training
    category based upon their most pressing personal needs.


    #3 We then customize and hyper-personalize as much of their training process as possible.


    #4 We prioritize their work to make certain the main thing remains the main thing.


    The Good News: There Are Things You Can Do…
    A Third Option


    Now let’s return to the main issue: Pitchers showing up on campus with a stock weighted ball throwing program.


    Option #1-We could simply let them do their thing and HOPE they will be ok. The problem with that approach is that if this guy is supposed to be one of our key contributors this season, can we really take the risk of him being healthy and available to us when the anecdotal evidence suggests that those guys get hurt more often. Is that fair to the rest of the guys who bust their humps every day in search of a championship?


    Option #2- We could put our foot down and not allow outside programs whatsoever. The problem with that approach is that it immediately creates a rift between the player and the coaches, and really places a stain on trust, rapport, and team culture. Always keep in mind that the player has consciously invested his time and money into his program, and you refusing to respect or honor his investment is a confirmation that you feel that the athlete is either incompetent, inept, or incapable of making sound training decisions on their own.


    Option #3- Or you could do this. Ask the player the following questions:

    • Ask the player to bring you his weekly process. (If he doesn’t have one, it’s on one sheet of paper, or on a laminated card, you know immediately it’s a stock program and what you are dealing with right away.)
    • How many days total are they throwing each week in addition to your team practice?
    • How many throws or how much time is spent on each segment outside of your team practice?
    • How many ‘push’ days a week outside of your team practice does this process call for?
    • What do they do for a wake-up, warm-up, and arm preparation outside of your team practice?
    • What do they do for post throwing and recovery outside of your team practice?
    • Did they previously have any assessment completed with regards to their physical structure or alignment which shaped their current process?
    • Did they previously have any assessment completed with regards to their mobility/flexibility which shaped their current process?
    • Did they previously have any assessment completed with regards to their strength/stability which shaped their current process?
    • Did they previously have any assessment completed with regards to their mechanical efficiency which shaped their current process?
    • Have they previously had any pain, arm issues, or difficulty in recovering?
    • Is their current workload using this system more, less, or the same as they trained in previous seasons?
    • Can they adequately explain, to your satisfaction, the specific purpose of each of their drills?


    Again, I learned the importance of these questions the hard way. For the last 12 years I have roamed the facilities of the Texas and Florida Baseball Ranches, continually asking players those exact questions. While our coaches and players have improved exponentially in their ability to answer those questions over the past 12 years, some players just don’t quite grasp the concepts and/or the full magnitude of their personal training process.


    The reason this is important is we obviously can’t assume just because an athlete ‘generally’ knows how to perform a specific drill and carries with him a laminated card and training paraphernalia, he therefore is a master at managing his own process over the course of the season. Subsequently, such a person who is clearly not intimately knowledgeable would, in our opinion, need and benefit from our continued guidance, mentorship, and support.


    Remember: You Lead People…
    You Manage Systems & Processes


    Based on how each athlete answers these questions, the answers give us great insight into how we should proceed.


    If indeed this is a ‘stock’ and ‘homogenized’ throwing program in which there is little or no personalization, cycling, or periodization, then we suggest you as his coach should intervene.


     One of the biggest weaknesses of choreographed throwing programs is a complete lack of a ramp-up for soft tissue. Soft tissue pliability, resilience, and robustness takes a gradual increase in intensity and volume over time. 


    • Tell him to take his prescribed throwing program and cut it in half for the first 2 weeks.
    • Tell him that if his arm is completely healthy after the first 2 weeks, for the next 2 weeks (weeks 3-4) to increase the volume to 60% of the suggested throwing program workload.
    • If his arm is completely healthy after weeks 3-4, tell him for the next 2 weeks (weeks 5-6) to increase the volume to 70% of the suggested throwing program workload.
    • If his arm is completely healthy after weeks 5-6, for the next 2 weeks (weeks 7-8) increase the volume to 80% of the suggested throwing program workload.
    • If his arm is completely healthy after weeks 7-8, for the next 2 weeks (weeks 8-9) increase the volume to 90% of the suggested throwing program workload.
    • If his arm is completely healthy after 9 weeks, he may add ONE velocity push day or one max long toss day and adopt his full program as long as you are not scrimmaging. If you are scrimmaging, pitching in competition becomes his push day. By all means long toss on a regular basis but trying to set personal all-time best distances is not recommended in our opinion during your competition phase.
    • If at any time he experiences any sort of arm discomfort, he immediately reverts back to the previous week’s volume and intensity, and refrains from any velocity push days or maximum distance long toss.


    Bottom Line:


    • The steepness of season, training/practice, and game time ramp-ups are absolutely critical towards arm health and durability. Get that wrong at your own peril.
    • There is a third option for dealing with ‘stock’, ‘one size fits all’ weighted ball throwing programs and it not only helps with the ramp-up and arm health, it also builds rapport and trust between the coaches and the player as they work together to build a healthy, more durable, more electric throwing athlete.


    Until next time,

    Stay curious and keep fighting the good fight.


    – – – – – – – – – –


    If you know a young man that doesn’t need more innings this summer, but instead needs to improve either his velocity, command, secondary offerings or arm health & recovery, please encourage him to join us at The Texas Baseball Ranch for our “Extended Stay Summer Development Program”.  He will leave with a hyper-personalized plan to help him with HIS specific needs.  More information is available at

  • Command, It’s Not Just for Breakfast Anymore – Part 2 By: Coach Flint Wallace

    (This is Part 2 of a 2-part series.  Part 1 gave an overview on the subject and presented the first two of six training options. If you missed Part 1, CLICK HERE to access to it.  In Part 2, the remaining four training options are covered.)


    Variable Distance

    The Variable Distance is designed to work on making adjustments from pitch to pitch or to blend movement patterns into a full distance pitch.

    Set Up:

    • Place 3 targets at varying distances, 4-6 feet difference.  (Pictured here, the use of  the Command Trainer.  It can be found at
    • This can be done on 3 separate mounds or can be done on 1 mound.

    How to Perform:

    • Start at the first target and deliver a pitch or perform a drill if blending.
    • Then move to the next target and deliver a pitch or if blending, perform the next drill in the blend.
    • Finally, move to the last target and do the same.



    • The purpose of the V-Flex is to make your brain have to create a three-dimensional image of the strike zone.
    • It provides spatialinformation for the brain, so the strike zone is created inside the brain instead of as an external hard target outside the brain.
    • This allows for more cognitive feedback.

    Set Up:

    • Place the small V-Flex frame at home plate with the black back drop directly behind it.
    • Then, when ready, add the next size frame about 15-20 feet in front of the small frame to create a visual tunnel from the mound.
    • Finally, you can add the third size (largest) frame about 15-20 feet in front on the middle frame.


    How to Perform:

    • Just make pitches from the mound, executing inside and outside the strike zone.
    • Start with all 3 frames, then you can subtract a frame and so on.
    • Also, take a frame away for a few pitches then add it back, and go back and forth.



    If you want to make it easier to track command in a bullpen or whenever a pitcher is throwing to a catcher, like in a flat ground or short distance work, use a string set up: